Of course, there are many physical and mental factors that underpin excellent Athletic Performance, but the following 4 are essential Neurophysiologically.

1.     Fixed Superior Mindfulness (FSM) and Mentally Tough Athlete (MTA) Advantage

Neural Patterns are organized in Neural Networks aka Neuronets.
•“Each neuron (brain cell) holds an idea”
•each Network (Neuronet) of neurons holds summation of ideas, for example: Beliefs
•Neural Networks define Brain Systems and activate consciousness and other neurophysiology. [Your Beautiful Mind, George Helou]

What is the difference in Mindfulness and Mindset?

Mindfulness is not just thinking, but a BRAIN NETWORK for a WAY OF THINKING, the neurophysiology elicited from the neuroanatomy, which focuses awareness wholly on the present. When one is mindful the person accepts their current feelings, sensations and emotional networks, as the person becomes aware of them and then collects and mobilizes them for performance.

Mindset is derived from “habits of mind formed by previous experience.” [ Am Psycholocigal Assoc., Online Etymology Dictionary]; mental attitudes that predetermines persons’ responses after interpretation of the situation. [APA, American Heritage Science Dictionary Mar 7, 2018]

Mindset is also described as a set of Beliefs we have, which direct our potential responses, when internal and external stimuli are activated.

Mindset in medical terms is a “fixed mental attitude or disposition that predertimens a person’s responses to a situation”; (response to internal or external stimuli); “a habit, inclination”. [Stedman’s Medical Dictionary 1995] terms

In genetic language, Mindset is an inactive potential action, representing a variety of different genomic blueprints for ideas, attitudes, thoughts, beliefs etc., in brain cell (neuron) nuclei, at rest, awaiting activation. [Enabling genius: A mindset for success in the 21st century by Myles Downey, 20, 224 pages]   Thought: “Here comes the ball. Action: I’ll catch it.” Thought: “time to pray.” Action: “Begin prayer.”

Other ways to think about Mindfulness and Mindset are Neurophysiology requires action verbs and adverbs and Neuroanatomy requires noun names and descriptive adjectives.

Other identified networks which are Default modes, Dorsal attention, Salience, Lateral visual auditory, motor, right executive, posterior default mode, left fronto-parietal, cerebellar, ventral attention, spatial attention, language, left executive, sensorimotor, memory and others.

“To determine if cognition (thinking) is universal or socio-cultural, investigators made a clear distinction between the different levels of thinking. 3 descriptive planes (3 levels) of Mind’s cognitive phenomenon (thinking) were described:

1. Biological Process: genes activate, neurons, proteins, enzymes, interact, etc.
2. Psychological Computation: Mind’s core programs/operations. (x leads to y)
3. Surface Behavior: the relations between stimuli and responses. (x results in y)

“In this way, it becomes clearer that although both nature and nurture can have an effect to some degree on the 3 planes. The first 2 are essentially universal while the 3rd one is undoubtedly socio-cultural.

Athletes and all people have different ways of thinking but do they actually think in different ways?

The answer is that “people and Athletes from different cultures may have different ways of thinking, but they don’t actually do the thinking in different ways i.e. use either one independently or a hybrid of the aforementioned 3 thinking planes.   [Different Ways Of Thinking And Thinking In Different Ways Apr 22nd, 2005 by Paula Bourges-Waldegg]

Thinking is active neurophysiology. The idea in a neuron is the anatomy, more specifically cytology, at rest, but when activated, it is the action of the idea, neurophysiology.

The hypothesis is that ‘Fixed Superior Mindfulness’ (thinking/cognition) of the Superior and  Supreme Athlete utilizes primarily Biological Processes while being influenced less by secondary Psychological Computation and Surface Behaviors and the ‘Growth Mindset’ Athlete utilizes Psychological and Behavioral layers primarily with the Biological Processes considerably less.

‘Fixed Superior Mindfulness’ of the Superior and Supreme Athlete are characterized by many positive personality traits, which the Athlete Mindfully organizes from the Cerebral Cortex, the top of their Mind (located in top of Cerebrum), down through the entire Nervous System, directing total Mindful energy, wasting none, on the athletic tasks at hand.

‘Fixed Superior Mindfulness’ gathers the total Mind’s Cerebral energy at the moment for action and focalizes all the power of Mind, as it proceeds to and through the body below, for the desired Athletic Assignment accomplishment.

Cerebral Cortex Lobes: Frontal- blue, Parietal -yellow, Occipital – red, Temporal – green

‘Fixed Superior Mindfulness’ is one of the greatest secrets of Athletic success and ‘poise’. No one can succeed without concentration.” “Perfect concentration is required for success.” 23.

“Concentration is a state of consciousness that is not actual until it becomes permanent. Concentration requires a ‘wide awake mind’, ‘wide awake attention’, undivided attention, and full mental action, neurophysiology, where the attention is directed.

‘Poise’ is a tem slung around, frequently voiced, in the Sports world, but what exactly is it? Poise is a Mindset, an attitude of self-confidence, composure and self-control, when used in Sports.

“The attitude of ‘poise’ demands perfect concentration, because all mental energies at that time are concentrated and are not scattered. “Scattered energies are always lost. Masterfulness requires that all mental energies are concentrated and not scattered.  [The science behind concentration and improved focus Dec 6, 2013 by Alina Vrabie]

The brain has both antagonist and protagonist networks. The antagonist is a series of brain structures called the Default Mode Network (DMN). The protagonist network is a series of brain structures called the Task-Positive Network (TPN).

“DMN and TPN are mutually exclusive. The activation of the DMN inhibits the TPN and vice versa.

“The Default Mode Network (DMN) is a brain network that is intimately related to anxiety, depression, and obsessionality. The DMN has been shown to be negatively correlated with other networks in the brain such as attention networks.

The Default Mode Network is an interconnected and anatomically defined set of brain regions. The network can be separated into numerus hubs and subsections.

“The DMN can simplistically be thought of as being made up of “medial” (towards the middle) parts of the brain. Reference described the parts in detail.

The Default Mode Network is most commonly defined with resting state fMRI data by stimulating the posterior cingulate cortex and examining which other brain areas most correlate with this area.  [ Greicius, Michael D.; Krasnow, Ben; Reiss, Allan L.; Menon, Vinod (2003-01-07). “Functional connectivity in the resting brain: a network analysis of the default mode hypothesis”. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 100 (1): 253–258]

The DMN can also be defined by the areas deactivated during external directed tasks. []Raichle, M. E.; MacLeod, A. M.; Snyder, A. Z.; Powers, W. J.; Gusnard, D. A.; Shulman, G. L. (2001). “Inaugural Article: A default mode of brain function”. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 98 (2): 676–82]

The DMN was also described as the task negative network. [Fox, Michael D.; Snyder, Abraham Z.; Vincent, Justin L.; Corbetta, Maurizio; Van Essen, David C.; Raichle, Marcus E. (2005-07-05). “The human brain is intrinsically organized into dynamic, anticorrelated functional networks”. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 102 (27): 9673–9678.]

“The TPN is active during the attention-demanding tasks, responsible for directing our conscious attention towards the external environment through our 5 senses, towards our internal bodily states, and to the willful execution of physical and mental action, attentional focus that brings these experiences into conscious awareness.

“No study has demonstrated the simultaneous activation of the two networks, DMN and TPN (4). The relationship between the DMN and the TPN is analogous to the relationship between inhalation and exhalation: despite their intimate nature, the two cannot exist simultaneously.

“The TPN is made up of the lateral prefrontal cortex (lPFC), the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), the insula, and the somatosensory cortex (S1).The lPFC is located in the lateral aspect of the frontal lobe. The lPFC is responsible for attentional-direction, decision-making, working memory (task-specific short-term memory), and cognitive control (regulating our thoughts). For the aforementioned reasons we will refer to the lPFC as the “Director.” The lPFC dictates where we direct our attention and what we do with it.

‘Fixed Superior Mindfulness’ of the Superior and Supreme Athlete is characterized by the protagonist series of brain structures the Task-Positive Network (TPN), which is engaged when the Athlete attends to the here and now. The TPN is the action network. The TPN is the Athletes direct line to Mindfulness in the Present Moment in which worry and sadness cannot be activated, because the Default Mode Network (DMN) is inhibited from that moment.

As Kentucky Head Basketball Coach Calipari, who is a well read scholar, who always carries a book with him and who established CoachCal.com and Coach Cal’s Book Club for all interested, and who is a student of many subjects, explained, in his words, when a player of his, “conquered himself”. His player finally “grew-up” into a great basketball player, when “he conquered himself”.

In Classical terms, “The Latin phrase “vincit qui se vincit” translates to “He Conquers Who Conquers Himself.” It means that a person who overcomes his weaknesses or failings, who is able to control his emotions and actions, wins life’s most important battle. It is an adaptation of a phrase by Publilius Syrus, a Latin writer of maxims (1st century BC). He wrote: Bis vincit qui se vincit in victoria meaning “He conquers twice who conquers himself when he is victorious”; control your urge to be arrogant, smug, cruel, or vindictive when you win.” [Charlene Dargay, Updated Mar 27 2016 Quora]

Coach Cal brilliantly explained and applied to his players the psychological analysis, “He Conquers Who Conquers Himself,” which, in this reporter’s neurophysiological alternative terms, for which both are correct, is ‘Fixed Superior Mindfulness’ coupled with the protagonist Task-Positive Network (TPN).

Superior and Supreme Athletes, who are blessed with the ‘Fixed Superior Mindfulness’, are characteristically personable. They have positive energy personalities. They are Accessible, Kind and Courteous to the athletic staff, media and fans, very Self-Confident and Articulate. He/she appear Perceptive, Knowledgeable and Wise about their athletic expertise and obligations.

Practice leading up to the sporting event is always a serious endeavor for the ‘Fixed Superior Mindfulness’ Athlete (FSMA). The FSMA is a student of the game and assumes a Goal-Oriented preparation approach. They are extremely Energetic, Enthusiastic, Innovative, Hard-Working, Dedicated and Conscientious. The FSMA is always a leader on and off the court or field. He/she is Organized, a Perfectionist and always maintaining excellent Conditioning, Health, Strength and Readiness. The FSM Athlete is Uncomplaining and Stoic; never a ‘goldbricker’.

Come game time, the FSM Athlete remains Focused on Execution of his/her assignments and are always Concentrative and Courageous. He/she display Impressive, Exciting, Extraordinary, Heroic play and is Imaginative, Skillful, Intrinsically Motivated and Passionate for the game. FSMA Athletes play Intelligently, Intuitively, Perceptively and strive for Perfection. He/she often appear Invulnerable.

The FSMA is Appreciative, Modest and Humble in Victory and Gracious and Self-Critical in defeat.

Off the field or court, the FSMA has a good Personality and is Genuinely Optimistic, Honest, Honorable, Responsible Self-reliant, Trustworthy, Principled, Reliable, Considerate and always on their best Behavior. FSMA is very Contemplative and Consciously aware of their surroundings and possess a need to improve themselves and their game. FSMA has no ‘foolishness bone’ in their body.

Mental Tough Athlete (MTA) Mindset has a competitive advantage, derived from the love, passion, soul and spirit for the game.

Not all Athletes have Mental Toughness. Authentic, genuine Athlete Toughness Mindset is multidimensional. The MTA is gifted with ‘FS Mindfulness’, have the athletic ability to back it up and a ‘5 star ‘Will To Execute Assignments’, perform well.

Gucciardi et al (2015) presented 7 Mindset indicators of Mental Toughness: Self-Belief, Attention Regulation, Emotion Control, Success Mindset, Context Knowledge (understanding the event at the moment), Buoyancy ( cheerful disposition) and Optimism. [Sport Psychology: A Complete Introduction by John Perry Hodder & Stoughton, Jan 14, 2016]

Mentally Tough Athlete (MTA) has extreme passion for the game, an intense emotional feeling for the game and plays for the love of the game, not the fear of the Coach, fear of loss or any other fear and enjoys the aggressive play and self-denying physicality of the game.

This reporter believes that Mentally Tough Athletes are also blessed with ‘Fixed Superior Mindfulness’. When both are combined, the Athlete in possession is something very special.

The FSMA-MTA studies the intricacies of the game, stays focused on assignments, avoids distracting obstacles, while playing the game. Nothing impedes the FSMA-MTA focus and places execution of assignments for the team victory first before personal recognition.

The FSMA-MTA  is well-rounded, prepared for success and victory; always comes with their game-on, every game, as only they can play it, because their mind and bodies are completely prepared.

The FSMA-MTA are dedicated, self-sacrificing, determined, play aggressively, maintains strict conditioning and stays in excellent shape year round. They never dissipate and seize every moment to stay in top condition.

The FSMA-MTA desires to be a player in something bigger than self, part of a successful team, yet humble in victory and graceful in defeat.

Please see a more detailed report:  http://www.cappaa.com/the-superior-mindfulness-of-the-supreme-athlete

2.     Muscle Memory and Athletic Momentum Advantage

‘Muscle Memory’ is an often quoted phenomenon, but usually ‘the quoter’ lacks further details and explanations. ‘Muscle Memory’ begins in the Brain and ends in the muscle. Motor muscles don’t remember.

Possibly the following will help elucidate the phenomenon.

An Athlete must concentrate and focus his/her attention and mental effort primarily on Internal, self-imposed Positive Motivation. Secondarily, the Athlete must focus on External, Coach/mentor-enacted Positive Motivation. And so, that is how the ‘Little Engine’ became “process oriented,” not “outcome oriented” and could. “I think I can, I think I can,” and the engine thus could.

The Athlete should concentrate on the execution of their current assignment and athletic action. There must be a Attitude Mindset and an neuron idea action, neurophysiology. Example: “Give me the ball, I can score.”

The “process oriented” Athlete is Self-Disciplined and has remarkable Self-Control. They are obedient to themselves, the Coach and therefore, the Team.

In the Brain

  • positive external stimuli are sensorially processed,
  • from repetitive ‘Muscle Actions with Synchronization’
  • which have been relentlessly and intensively practiced, executed in games, and rewarded.
  • The electrical sensory stimuli, while moving along the neuron network, gather the same internal memorized mental stimuli
  • and the sum of all new and old memorized stimuli reinforce the agile, fluid actions of the muscles,
  • furthering the generation of Synchronized Repetitive Neurophysiological Athletic Executions,
  • Muscle Memory

Agonist-Antagonist Athletic Muscle Actions, are muscle phenomena called ‘Muscle Synchronization’, the crux of muscle memory. Practice and concentration on accomplishment, while allaying apprehension and fear of failure, trigger the agonist and retard the antagonist that hinder agonist agile, fluid execution.

‘Muscle Memory’ is Mindful Agonist Neurophysiology 1st and ‘Muscle Synchronization’ 2nd. Fear, worry and apprehension of defeat, disappointment and failure are Antagonistic to Muscle Fluidity and Agility.

“The agonist muscle groups are free to glide smoothly through their athletic active and memory synchronies, repeatedly, unimpeded by the antagonist muscles,” when the Athlete is not worried about the outcome of a game i.e “if I miss we’ll lose and fear of the Coach, or other worries and fears.

Imagine an antagonist rubber band attached to the forearm when shooting a free throw. If the Athlete Mind is burdened with worry and fear, when the basketball is released the antagonist rubber band will restrict the usually practiced muscle memorized agile, fluid movement, because the Basketball Athlete overrides the practiced muscle memory with emotions, fear of failure, worry of losing the game, apprehension of defeat and punishment by Coach et so forth. The rubber band is tightly ‘choked’ to the forearm.

Instead, to prevent choking and antagonist reactions, the Athlete says to self “give me the ball because I can score”. “Smash the damn ball at me and I’ll smash it back.” [Vic Braden] With confidence, “Give me the ball. I can make this free throw;” “Score this touchdown.”

In this scenario, with no emotions, no fear of failure, worry, apprehension overriding the muscle action, the antagonist rubber band is non-existent and the usually practiced agonist muscle memorized forearm agile, fluid movement, smoothly glides, when the Basketball is released toward the goal successfully.

The ‘Mind Over Matter’, Concentration, Willpower Over Muscle Memory Desynchronization will Generate Muscle Synchronization, Positive Athletic Performance and Winning Physical Execution of Athletic Assignments.

“Muscle Memory’ generates Positive Momentum secondary to continuous intensified Athletic Agonist Motions and successful execution of assignments and reinforcing ‘Muscle Memory’ by maintaining successful Synchronized Athletic Performances repeatedly. This process generates the repeated continuous successful push-pull Agonist Cycle, over and over again.

When Athletes learn that repetitive good decision-making, become unemotional, unaffected, stoic, concentrate, process focused, not outcome focused, the process will result in a repetitive state of positive performances, competition wins, and Dopaminergic “feeling good” which will become repetitive.

Positive emotions encourage Athletes to do it again, momentum accrues and the cycle repeats itself. [Mental Tennis by Vic Braden 1996] [Competitive Advantage and “This Is Your Brain On Sports: Beating Blocks, Slumps and Performance Anxiety for Good!” Alan Goldberg, PhD]

[Please see the following for many more references: http://www.cappaa.com/category/sports-anxiety-stress-psychodynamics]

3.     Alcohol and Marijuana Abstinence Advantage

An impaired Mind is detrimental to Athletic success. Athletes in training should not imbibe excessive, untimely alcohol, use marijuana, other harmful substances, smoke cigarettes, take substances that cause shortness of Mind, brain, lung and liver damage, muscle energy deprivation, shortness of breath, shortness of liver and aerobic muscle metabolism. Athletes must be dedicated, self-sacrificing and train many extra miles.


“Marijuana use in college football is on the rise….there is an increase now in Marijuana use…. mimicking one the game saw in the early 1980s.

….26.7% reported using marijuana at least once in the past 12 months, up from 21.7 percent in 2005.

….49% of male lacrosse players admitted to using marijuana over the past 12 months. Soccer players reported a higher rate than football. [David Ubben, May 29, 2012 ESPN.com]

“The NCAA only tests for marijuana during championships. Why? ….Marijuana doesn’t enhance performance….40-60 percent of Oregon players smoked pot”

“From 2009-2010 marijuana positives increased 2 ½ times according to the NCAA….if a quarter of all players are admitting they’ve tried it, there must be another quarter” who (didn’t) respond.

“It mimics society,” Marijuana is the new beer in college.

….”Players were allegedly caught dealing” Marijuana in a recent scandal. Also very troubling…”testing positive” Pot “just doesn’t bother me that much.”….” The stupidity is getting caught.

The subtle message the NCAA is sending: Marijuana isn’t important enough to assume it helps you hit home runs or an opposing linebacker. There is little you can do on pot to help your game…. [By Dennis Dodd CBSSprots.com April 22, 2012]

Marijuana doesn’t enhance Athletic Performance. Research reveals that Marijuana negatively impacts Child and Youth Sports, Recreation and Exercise (SRE) Performance and human Physiology in many ways. See the negative effects:

• increase heart rate
• decrease cardiac stroke volume
• diminished peak performance
• slowed reaction time
• ↓motor coordination
• ↓hand–eye coordination
• ↓perceptual accuracy
• potentially dangerous in sports that rely on quick reactions and fast decision-making
• increased anxiety, panic, nervousness and restlessness
• disruption to sleeping patterns.
• no research has objectively demonstrated that marijuana use results in observable increases in performance through relaxing the athlete or improving their sleeping patterns
• the respiratory system, smoking any substance is harmful and can reduce the effectiveness of the body’s ability to absorb the required amount of oxygen needed for optimum sports performance.
• Smoking marijuana exposes the lungs to both carbon monoxide and tar which increase the risks of a range of health problems including respiratory tract infections, bronchitis and lung cancer.
[National Cannabis Prevention and Information Centre]


“Intercollegiate athletes are at a particularly high risk for excessive alcohol consumption and resulting negative alcohol-related consequences.”  [ A systematic review of college student-athlete drinking: Prevalence rates, sport-related factors, and interventions.by Martens MP1, Dams-O’Connor K, Beck NCJ Subst Abuse Treat. 2006 Oct;31(3):305-16. Epub 2006 Jul 25. ]

“Consequences of youth and college drinking include missed classes and lower grades, injuries, sexual assaults, overdoses, memory blackouts, changes in brain function, lingering cognitive deficits, and death.

“Studies of college drinking (data from the Harvard CAS and other studies) reveal that athletes and other students coping with psychological distress, those on campuses near a high density of alcohol outlets, students with access to cheap drink specials, a willingness to endure the consequences of alcohol misuse, and drinking at off-campus parties and bars all contribute to excessive drinking (Mallett et al. 2013; Wechsler and Kuo 2003; Yusko et al. 2008).”

“Importantly, excessive drinking prior to college relative to other college-bound students is predictive of both excessive drinking at college and experiencing alcohol-related consequences (Varvil-Weld et al. 2013; White et al. 2002).  [White A, Hingson R. The Burden of Alcohol Use: Excessive Alcohol Consumption and Related Consequences Among College Students. Alcohol Research : Current Reviews. 2014;35(2):201-218]

“It has been estimated that the average American college student drinks more than 34 gallons of alcohol every year. Alcohol may provide as much as 20% of calories in the diet of some drinkers. “

Athletes should be aware of the detrimental side effects of Alcohol:

DEHYDRATION and Blood Electrolyte imbalance might require several days to a weeks for full recovery from the last drink of alcohol. Dehydrated athletes are at greater risk for musculoskeletal injuries including: cramps, muscle pulls, and muscle strains.

Dehydrated athletes after alcohol binge can develop severe brain impairment and even death with extreme temperatures during intense practices (most notable during two-a-days). Dehydration leads to decreased appetite
Muscle wasting (you lose muscle mass).
Decrease in strength and performance
Decreased food consumption associated with appetite loss
Fatigue and over training, which may further heighten injury risk.


Alcohol, when consumed can dramatically decrease serum testosterone levels.
Causes decreased aggressive play,
Decrease lean muscle mass, muscle recovery form alcohol and poor athletic performance.
Testicular shrinkage
Breast enlargement
Decreased sperm development in males
Females, may cause an increase in the production of estradial, (a form of estrogen) may increase the risk of breast cancer.


Alcohol will also impair reaction time
Mental acuity for up to several days after consumption
Performance will be reduced and injury risk increased
Decrease in hand-eye coordination
Will impair judgment
interferes with lactic acid breakdown and can result in increased soreness after exercise Alcohol can also cause nausea, vomiting, and drowsiness for days after consumption


Alcohol is stored like fat in the body; Increases fat storage
Adversely effects body composition (increase % body fat).
Powerful energy pathways (like glycolysis) are impaired and large amounts of lactic acid are produced,
Decreased energy, decreased muscle recovery


Alcohol causes Fatty liver, fibrosis, cirrhosis (irreversible liver damage) and gout
Alcohol over stimulates cells in the lining of the stomach that produce acid
Increases in acid production are associated with heartburn and ulcer development. Intestinal cells fail to absorb micronutrients (vitamins and minerals), which can lead to electrolyte imbalances and vitamin deficiencies.
Alcohol consumption impairs the body’s mechanisms that control blood glucose and may result in hypoglycemia.
May cause serious injury even if it doesn’t last long because it causes the brain and other body tissues to be deprived of glucose needed for energy and normal function
Hypoglycemia is a common cause of low energy on the field and in the classroom


“Alcohol acts as a central nervous system depressant and can impair judgment leading to injuries (both to other people and oneself).
Associated with numerous homicides, suicides, fatal auto accidents, and fights resulting in incarceration.
Iecreased impairment of judgment and decreased inhibition


“Long-term alcohol use may lead to weakened heart muscle, impotency, altered brain and nerve functions, elevated triglycerides, fat deposits in the liver, abnormalities in blood-clotting, pancreatitis, liver failure, vitamin deficiencies, skin abnormalities, and even death.

“Alcohol prevents athletes from reaching their ultimate playing potential.”


“Alcohol has a detrimental effect on both the quality of sleep and on daytime attention. Sleep problems are common in alcoholics and also in some people who have completely stopped drinking. The effects of alcohol on sleep and attention are complicated to define and have considerable variability in individuals,
Alcohol and attention

“The sedative action of alcohol has variable degrees of effect on attention, reducing it and producing diminished performance. This action is particularly noticeable in subjects who lack sleep or who tend to be lethargic.
[http://www.sportsnutrition4u.com, Supplied by UC San Diego Intercollegiate Athletics]


“>This study found that chronic marijuana use in adolescence was negatively associated with achieving important developmental milestones in young adulthood,” said study author Elizabeth Harari.

A new study has revealed that young adults who are dependent on marijuana and alcohol are less likely to achieve adult life goals.

The research by UConn Health scientists was presented on November 5 at the American Public Health Association 2017 Annual Meeting & Expo, as mentioned by Medical Xpress.

Researchers found that the individuals who were dependent on either marijuana or alcohol during their teenage year have achieved lower levels of education.

They were less likely to be employed full time or get married. Also, had a lower social economic potential.

“>This study found that chronic marijuana use in adolescence was negatively associated with achieving important developmental milestones in young adulthood,” said study author Elizabeth Harari.

“Awareness of marijuana’s potentially deleterious effects will be important moving forward, given the current move in the US toward marijuana legalisation for medicinal and possibly recreational use,<” Harari added. Please see reference for complete report: [Parents, take note! Alcohol & marijuana use in teens can lessen their chances of being successful in life by Pinaz Kazi November 6, 2017 International Business Times

4.     Strong Belief Systems Advantage

Humans and Athletes were never intended to live in the Garden of Eden. Athletes and all other Homo sapien-sapiens, modern anatomical cognitive humans, one phyla of 36 in the Kingdom Animalia, were created to willfully overcome the struggles ‘doin life’, find the path to salvation and  live in the ‘Garden of Heaven’.

Athletes, who believe in themselves, the Coaches and necessary others have many advantages.

There are many types of human belief systems and many types of Dopaminergic receptor sites.

Dopaminergic Pathways by Patrick J, Lynch

Stimulation of one of the belief system types directly enhances the strength of that type and other types indirectly and proportionately via Dopamine messenger trafficking along the Dopaminergic Neurotransmitter System pathways.

“Scientists concluded, under the premise that the world is ultimately understandable through observations, predictions and experiments, that human brains have evidence-based belief systems.

Medical doctors and biological scientists employ scientific data from blood and tissue chemistries, organs, like the brain and all other anatomical parts and microscopic cells, molecular biology, genetics, immunology, neuroscience and psychology, brain scans and every objective measurable characteristic in the brain and body to research belief systems.

Modern anatomical cognitive humans, Homo sapien-sapien subspecies, with cognitive brains, located in organized interconnected cerebral neural brain systems, began their evolution 50,000 to 70.000 years ago.

The origins of “to believe” and “belief-in” began long before what society now describes as organized religions. “To believe” and “belief-in” systems emerged and evolved from cognitive and social human experiences, external stimuli, and shaped the evolution of the anatomical structures, cells and tissue, and neurophysiology of the human brain.

“Contemporary analytic philosophers generally used the term “belief” to refer to the attitude we have, whenever we take something to be the case or regard it as true. To believe something needn’t involve actively reflecting on it.” Those somethings were regarded as truthful.  7.

Scientists concluded that the first belief systems and non-organized religions began about the same time in the Prehistoric Era. “Archaeological evidence suggests that prehistoric people 10,000 to 4,000 BCE were guided by their beliefs in spirits and sacred places. Their cave drawings and traces of their cultural objects indicate that they believed in an afterlife, although they probably did not practice polytheism, or a belief in many gods.”  8.

Possibly, modern anatomical cognitive humans, Homo sapien-sapien subspecies, with cognitive brains, participated in Athletic-like competitions, possibly played ‘games’ as they searched for food or shelter, guided by their belief systems.

During their quest for survival, the  human brains’ action nuclei processed internal and environmental stimuli, then were stimulated, activated and human body actions occured as the brain trafficked neural pathways toward beliefs and triggered those beliefs. The process of evolution of the brain created the resultant beliefs. The brain housed the evolutionary cells and tissue, while the beliefs neurobiologically evolved.

Researchers concluded that brain activity was not the specific cause of all belief systems, including religious, but human experiences recorded within the brain resulted in beliefs.

Researched brain scans i.e. MRI, fMRI, efMRI, revealed that associated religious, spiritual and meditative brain activity were produced in response, following those excitational external stimuli that were presented to human subjects and furthered beliefs.

Andrew Newberg suggested that a large neural network is involved in religious phenomena, other non-religious experiences and a vast array of other beliefs.

Athletes, who believe in themselves, the Coaches, necessary others and their religion develop large belief systems and thus have many Athletic advantages. Beliefs underpin self-confidence.

In a danger-ridden world, in which our ancestors evolved, a perceived reward interpretation, from any external event stimulus, that minimized fears, threats and dangers and yielded a survival advantage, the brain encoded in its cellular DNA, which thereafter became a firm belief when transcribed for intracellular function and recorded in their memory some scientists believed to be located in the neuron microtubules.  From there, the reward reducing dangers, resulting in beliefs were genetically coded, believed and remembered in the brain of humans.  11. 12. 13. 14. 15.

[Microtubule Dynamicity Is More Important than Stability in Memory Formation: an In Vivo Study. Deyhim Atarod, Ghazaleh Eskandari-Sedighi, Farid Pazhoohi, Seyed Morteza Karimian, Mojtaba Khajeloo, Gholam Hossein Riazi J Mol Neurosci. 2015 Jun; 56(2): 313–319. Published online 2015 Mar 5. doi: 10.1007/s12031-015-0535-4]

Microtubule diagram by Thomas Splettstoesser

Similarly Athletic successes shall be likewise believed and remembered.

interpretation of an external event stimulus and a perceived reward for a ‘job well done’, excellent execution of an Athletic assignment yield a motivational advantage. The brain encodes in its cellular DNA a firm belief for the reward for a ‘job well done’ and records the belief in its  memory. Therefrom, the reward resulting in beliefs are genetically coded, believed and remembered in the brain of humans.

Athletes, who willfully stimulate neural activity and growth of the brain (Neuroplasticty) thru the practice of spirituality, religiousness and/or meditation thinking and mindfulness will enhance that belief system directly and all other belief systems indirectly and proportionately and thus Athletes will be happier, well satisfied, contemplate an Athletic ‘life well spent’ and not fear mistakes and defeat.

Therefore, it is very important that each Athlete stimulate and practice all their belief systems including Belief and Faith in our Creator. The following are characteristics and advantages of those beliefs:

Spirituality + Religious + Meditation Thinking + Mindfulness (SRM T + M) after sensory stimulation and integration have dramatic impacts on every day human and Athlete life:
→ stimulate multiple brain parts
→ influence a more Positive living outcome
→ live longer
→ live healthier life
→ less depression
→ Less alcohol + drug addiction [Planate] 128]

SRM T + M brains evolve → patterns → Once patterns established in Mind
→ SRM T+ M patterns → become Beliefs
→ once Beliefs formed in brain → confirmation in Beliefs established
→ confidence in Beliefs builds
→ round / round process begins [Shermer]
→ positive feedback loop continually increases, reinforces the Belief confirmation [The Believing Brain by Michael Shermer 2012]

“Students at a faith-based NCAA Division I-FBS institution significantly agreed that their faith impacted decisions regarding where they attend college, how they perform athletically and/or academically as well as decisions regarding alcohol, tobacco, and performance enhancing drug use and less likely to use alcohol, tobacco, and performance enhancing drugs during the current school year.

“Overall, the results reaffirm and accentuate the importance of religion in student athletes’ lives. It is apparent from the results of this study that religiosity plays an important role in the overall health of a student-athlete..

“Perhaps religiosity should be as important as weight-training and tutoring in the holistic sense of student-athlete well-being, rather than be viewed by coaches and sport administrators as a secondary student-athlete service best suited for a sports chaplain serving in a role that is peripheral to the athletic department. Religiousness may improve how athletes perform on the field, in the classroom, and how to better cope with victory and defeat.  [An Analysis of the Strength of Religious Faith of Student Athletes and Non-Student-Athletes at NCAA Division I-FBS Institutions Jonathan W. Evans, M.S. Mentor: Jeffrey C. Petersen, Ph.D., Baylor University Science Master Thesis]

“While championing the good of sporting experiences in themselves (Watson, 2007b; Higgs and Braswell, 2004; Hoffman,1992,b,c; Higgs, 1983), these writers, ask whether so-called spiritual experiences and the use and interpretation of sporting metaphors, such as ‘sporting spirit’, in traditional and alternative-extreme sports (see O’Gorman, 2010a; Watson, 2007b), lead the athlete to a deeper commitment to God, purification from vices and the development of humility, the benchmark of Christian mysticism down the centuries.

“In this vein, is it then theologically plausible to consider that the Christian belief of an athlete may lead to enhanced performance, and /or winning?

“Based on data from interviews with professional athletes who have made a commitment to the Christian faith during their career (Hubbard, 1998), it could be argued that the process of Christian salvation and the life-long surrendering of the heart to God (alongside technical physical practice and fitness conditioning), which according to Christian teaching leads to inner peace and a sense of identity rooted in God the father (Romans 8: 1-18), may inadvertently lead an athlete to improved performance in competition.

[Sports and Christianity: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives (foreword by Michael Novak), Chapter: Sports and Christianity: Mapping the Field, Publisher: Routledge, Editors: Nick J. Watson and Andrew Parker, pp.9-88.].

Our Creator created special neurobiological and neurophysiological Dopaminergic networks. These are potential spaces and brain places when activated transmit SRM Thinking + Mindfulness. This is the part where the Scriptures interface the brain, where neuroscience describes that there are the 55+ areas of the brain with networks and neuronets, which were noted in Genesis, when Humans were created in ‘His Likeness’ [Gen 1:26].

Dopamine neurotransmitters are signaling molecules or neurochemicals that tag neuron receptors and transmit sense of SRM T+M across the brain networks, created for the human Mind’s SRM T+M experience. [d’Aquili,MD (a psychiatrist)Newberg, MD(neurologist)  Neurotheology]

Dopamine neurotransmitters also transmit many other brain functions: movement, memory, pleasurable reward, behavior, cognition, attention, inhibition of prolactin production, sleep, mood, learning. Some of these transmissions interface muscle agonists’ agility and fluidity, the advantage of Muscle Memory and Athletic Momentum mentioned above.

Novice readers to scientific subjects now begin to understand that the neural networks in the brain, the Neurophysiology, are just one big happy family when willfully activated in accordance with their reason for Creation.

Belief Neuroplasticity is growth of sanctuary brain anatomy, home for belief neurophysiology.

Neuron DNA, neural brain cells and tissue are hardwired for many Beliefs, including SRM T and M  neuro-anatomically created [VMAT2 gene Dr. Hamer]

Neuron, brain cell, energy utilization: From red blood vessels oxygen, glucose and metabolites generate energy to keep the green neuron cell alive so that the green neuron cell can receive the energy of messages from blue neuron networks and transmit energy action messages further through brain networks

Belief Neural Patterns are organized in Neural Networks aka Neuronets.
•“Each neuron holds an idea”
•each neuronet (network) of neurons holds summation of ideas, for example: Beliefs
•Neural networks define Belief-systems, shape consciousness [Your Beautiful Mind, George Helou]

Athletes, who daily practice and stimulate spiritual, religious and/or meditative neural activity and growth of their brain centers (Neuroplasticity) will live longer, get well quicker, use less alcohol, drugs, have less depression and suicide, live happier and have a successful Athletic Performance Advantage.

5.     Athletes can have flashes of stardom and sporadic, inconsistent Athletic success, but, in time, will relapse, if the 4 advantages are not firmly implemented and strongly conditioned. IMHSMO.

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