The popularity of Sports, Recreation and Exercise (SRE) is growing by leaps and bounds. The number of Children participating in SRE increases dramatically each year.

“It is estimated that 41 million American Children are involved in youth sports, a number rising significantly. According to the National Alliance for Youth Sport, (NAYS), approximately 65 percent of children worldwide are involved in sport. According to US Soccer, soccer has the highest participation levels of nearly 17.5 million children.
[National Alliance for Youth Sport: Mission and History] [Health: Overweight and Obesity]

“According to Dr. Steve Carney, a professor of sport management at Drexel University in Philadelphia, approximately 41 million American children participate in youth sports. Youth sports keep children active, give them a sense of belonging and teach them discipline and sportsmanship. [CNN.com: Youth Sports Drawing More Than Ever]

“69% of girls and 75 % of boys in the United States participate in organized and team sports, according to the 2008 report titled “Go Out and Play: Participation in Team or Organized Sports” conducted by the Women’s Sports Foundation. For High School Sports – Between 2006 and 2007, approximately 7,342,910 boys and girls participated in high school sports. [LIVINGSTRONG.COM]

“The practice of a regular physical activity induces benefits for health. These benefits are not only physiological but are also psychological. In particular, physical training results in increased self-esteem and perceived physical competence (Demarco et al., 1989; Sonstroem, 1984), especially when self-esteem is initially low (McAuley, 1994), and in reduced anxiety level (Landers and Petruzzello, 1994; Carmack et al., 1999; Katula et al., 1999; Landers and Petruzzello, 1994).

“Self-esteem can be defined as a positive or negative orientation toward oneself, an overall evaluation of one’s worth or value (Rosenberg, 1979). Self-esteem is never definitive and may vary from a situation to another, from a meeting to another, according to problems to be solved or choices to be made (Tap et al., 2002). This factor is assumed to be responsive to enhancing interventions (Robson, 1988).

“To define anxiety, a distinction between state and trait has become commonplace. State anxiety is defined by an unpleasant emotional arousal in face of threatening demands or dangers. On the other hand, trait anxiety is independent of specific situations and reflects the existence of individual differences in the tendency to respond with state anxiety in the anticipation of threatening situations (Spielberger, 1983). It is primarily through experiences that some individuals acquire low or high trait anxiety and persons who are high in trait anxiety tend to be anxious in many situations. This factor is considered to be relatively stable but it may increase, even if modestly, in some cases (Norris et al., 1988).

“Self-esteem and trait anxiety vary during adolescence. There is a gradually but significant decrease of girls’ (Basow and Rubin, 1999; Gilligan, 1990) and boys’ (Eccles et al., 1989; Wigfield et al., 1991) self-esteem, as well as an increase of trait anxiety (Canals et al., 1992). These variations begin after the transition to secondary school as pupils adjust to the school change (Wigfield et al., 1991).

“Low self-esteem and/or high trait anxiety are potentially linked to risk behaviours, such as substance abuse (alcohol, cannabis, and other drugs), risky sexual behaviour, suicidal ideation and attempts, dieting and other extreme weight control methods (Laure et al., 2005; McGee and Williams, 2000; Wasson and Anderson, 1995; Wild et al., 2004a). This is proposed to be the reason why, for a long time, the aim of numerous prevention programs among adolescents is to improve their self-esteem and/or to enable them to cope with mental stress.

“Our work shows that a regular extra-curricular sports practice is associated to better levels of self-esteem and trait anxiety among young adolescent and this activity seems to protect from severe variations of self-esteem in girls. Practitioners and physical education teachers as well as parents, should be encouraged to seek out ways to involve pupils in physical activities, in particular girls, who, traditionally, are not encouraged to pursue a physically active lifestyle. [Regular extra-curricular sports practice is associated to better levels of self-esteem and trait anxiety among young adolescent and this activity seems to protect from severe variations of self-esteem in girls. by Caroline Binsinger, Patrick Laure and Marie-France Ambard, J. Sports Medicine (2006) 5, 123-129)

In an ideal, non-corrupt sports world the practice of a regular physical activity induces benefits for health. But currently, the sports world for Child and Youth Athletes is crammed-full of corruption often hidden from view.

Sexual Abuse of Athletes

Reliable statistics on the incidence of sexual abuse by coaches in youth sports are hard to come by, according to Celia Brackenridge, Director of the Centre for Youth Sport and Athlete Welfare at Brunel University in London and a leader in sports abuse research.

“The how and why of sexual abuse by coaches, however, are well-known:
Coaches have a great deal of power over athletes as they strive to achieve their goals. Coaches and athletes are often in close physical proximity
Normal boundaries that exist with non-family members can erode with the intimate coach relationship, sometimes evolving into a surrogate parent relationship.

“A lack of oversight during travel competitions (According to Brackenridge, abuse is more than twice as likely to happen on team trips).
[Preventing Sexual Abuse by Coaches: Advice for Parents, How Widespread the Problem Unclear; How and Why Abuse Occurs is Not By Maria Pease MD Read more: http://www.momsteam.com/health-safety/sexual-abuse-by-coaches-advice-parents#ixzz35BVufe8j

ABSTRACT: “Sexual and physical abuse have been reported from all levels of sports. Associations between abuse victimization and sports injury have not been fully investigated.“Swedish male and female youth and adult elite athletics athletes. 14% athletes reported lifetime exposure to sexual abuse and 18% athletes to physical abuse. More women than men reported lifetime sexual abuse.

“The perpetrators of sexual abuse in athletics were both men and women extending from coaches to peers in mid-adolescence. Physical abuse victimization was associated with higher injury prevalence among female athletes.

“Sexual and physical abuse victims are common in elite athletics and further studies of abuse, abuse victims, and abuse prevention are needed. [Lifetime sexual and physical abuse among elite athletic athletes: a cross-sectional study of prevalence and correlates with athletics injury, T Timpka, S Janson, J Jacobsson, J Kowalski, J Ekberg, M Mountjoy, Cg Svedin
British journal of sports medicine (Impact Factor: 3.67). 04/2014; 48(7):667. DOI:10.1136/bjsports-2014-093494.285 Source: PubMed ]

Some Coaches Prey on Athletes for SEX. Many are school Coaches and the Predatory Educators and Coaches age range 21 to 75 YO with an Average age of 28.

Order Predatory Offenders: Teacher, Coach, Substitute Teacher, Bus Driver, Teacher’s Aides (69% of the offenders). 20

25% to 33% girls in Sports (Internationally) are at risk Sexual Abuse before Adulthood. That risk increased With the Degree of Emotional Attachment to the Coach as Affected by Multiple Risk Factors [ Ref: Women in Sports, Editor, Barbara Drinkwater]

“There are now more than 100 individuals, many of them former swim coaches, on the USA Swimming list of permanently suspended or ineligible individuals for violation of the following Code of Conduct, Section 304.3.5 : Any inappropriate sexually oriented behavior or action directed towards a member by any other adult participating in any capacity whatsoever in the affairs or activities of USA Swimming or its LSCs (whether such adult is a member or not). Any nonconsensual physical sexual conduct, or pattern of unwelcome advances or other sexual harassment in connection with or incidental to a USA Swimming-related activity by any person participating in the affairs or activities of USA Swimming or its LSCs (whether such person is a member or not) directed toward any member or other person participating in the affairs or activities of USA Swimming or its LSCs. (effective September 27, 2008)

“The list of individuals was published by USA Swimming, effective December 23, 2013, who according to USA Swimming have received a lifetime ban, permanently resigned their membership, or been declared permanently ineligible for membership in USA Swimming. [USA Swimming]

“The U.S. Olympic Committee has committed more than $10 million for a new independent agency that will investigate and resolve allegations of sexual abuse in Olympic sports.

“At its board meeting Tuesday, the USOC voted to spend $5.2 million over the next five years and have the governing bodies of Olympic sports combine to match that amount to run the agency. The USOC will seek another $10 million to $15 million from outside parties.

“The agency, to open in 2015, will provide education programs and oversight for Olympic sports, some of which have had difficulty policing themselves. [USOC sets up agency to investigate sex abuse by Eddie Pells (AP National Writer) June 10, 2014 AP Sports]

Drugs and Doping

“Abstract: According to the International Olympic Committee, it is the responsibility of the sports medicine profession to care for the health and welfare of Olympic athletes, treat and prevent injuries, conduct medical examinations, evaluate performance capacity, provide nutritional advice, prescribe and supervise training programs, and to monitor substance use.

“Implicit in these functions is to assist Olympic athletes in achieving the objectives of the Olympic Motto (Citius, Altius, Fortius), which is to become faster, higher, and stronger. During the past Olympiads, athletic performance has increased, as indicated by times for the men’s marathon (−28%) or by the distance covered in the women’s javelin throw (+80%).

“However, the fulfillment of these responsibilities was a slow and protracted process, as demonstrated by the facts that medical examinations were not required until 1920, that 28 years elapsed before an official team physician was appointed, and that women had to wait until 1984 before sanction was given to compete in the marathon race. Doping was not defined until 1964, and monitoring of substance abuse did not materialize until after 1972.

“Although individuals have prepared for athletic competition since the ancient Olympics, the scientific foundations for various training prescriptions were not firmly established until the 1960s and 1970s. It was speculated that performance records will continue to improve in the next century because more scientific sports medicine information would be available and because such information would be better disseminated to athletes. [1997 American Society for Nutritional Sciences” Sports Medicine: A Century of Progress byCharles M. Tipton BS, MS, PhD Phisiology, Nutr. May 1, 1997 vol. 127 no. 5 878S-885S]
Performance-Enhancing Drugs in Sports

“In all areas of sports, professional, college, and even high school, there is widespread illegal use of performance-enhancing drugs. The cost of such use, both to the athlete and to society can be extraordinarily high.

“One of the reason athletes choose to use performance-enhancing drugs is to bulk up. Athletes have guidelines pertaining to size that must be met. Some athletes will use performance-enhancing drugs to make themselves gain weight.

“Another reason athletes will choose to use illegal drugs is to get more oxygen to their muscles. When blood and muscles are full of oxygen, one’s body can perform better. An athlete who has used a performance-enhancing drug to get more oxygen to his or her muscles can perform for longer periods of time.

“A third reason an athlete would choose to use an illegal drug is to stimulate the body. The reasons an athlete would need to keep his or her body stimulated are to reduce tiredness, to stay alert, and maintain aggressiveness. It is the same as when a person drinks coffee in the morning to perk him or herself up.

[Edwards, K. (2005, January 8). During an interview on the use of performance-enhancing drugs in sports]
[MacAuley, D. (1996, July 27). Drugs in sports. British Medical Journal. Downloaded January 7, 2005 from Western International University online library, Info Trac, http://www.apollolibrary.com/Library/databases.aspx?db=0 ]
{McCaffrey, B. (2001). The United States Must Spearhead Reforms to Eradicate Drugs in Sports. Drugs and Sports. Downloaded January 7, 2005 from Western International University online library, Opposing Viewpoints, http://galenet.galegroup.com}

“There are many substances abused by teens and body builders. They are using oral steroids: oxandrolone (Oxandrin), oxymetholone (Anadrol), methandrostenolone (Dianubol), and methenolone acetate (Primobolan).
“Injected steroids may include nandrolone decanoate (Deca Duraboloin, often called “Deca” on the street), stanozol (Winstrol), and testosterone cypionate or enanthate. Two other street names to be aware of include “roids” and “juice.”

“These drugs are frequently “stacked,” meaning that multiple steroid preparations are used at 1 time, or taken in a “pyramid” dosing regimen, in which the dose of steroids is increased over 6-12 weeks. Another method of abuse is called “cycling,” which involves taking multiple doses of steroids for weeks or months, stopping for a similar period, and starting again.

“Creatine is a top-selling supplement to be aware of because, as Dr. Achar explained, it can be the agent that “gets kids in the door” to using other illicit performance-enhancing drugs.

“Bitter orange peel is a sympathomimetic agent ‘which will give the same cardiovascular mortality as ephedra,’ according to Dr. Achar.

“Clomiphene citrate, which masks the androgenic effects of steroids, and diuretics, which decrease the accumulation of fluid weight of these agents, should raise suspicion that a young person is surreptitiously using anabolic steroids.

“Only a few medical indications for anabolic steroids exist and doses of anabolic steroids for these conditions are much lower than those used for performance enhancement.

“The adverse affects of anabolic steroids are many. They increase muscle mass while increasing the size of the heart, liver, and kidneys. They act as anticatabolic agents because they decrease activity of the body’s natural glucocorticoids. Anabolic steroids lower the sperm count for 6-9 months.
[Achar SA, Hooton DM. Performance enhancing drugs and supplements: the Taylor Hooton story. Program and abstracts of the American Academy of Family Physicians Annual Scientific Assembly; September 28-October 2, 2005; San Francisco, California. Abstract 1. Available at http://www.aafp.org/x38384.xml. Accessed November 21, 2005]
[NIDA Info Facts. Steroids (Anabolic-Androgenic). Washington, D.C.: National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; 2005. Available at www.drugabuse.gov. Accessed October 27, 2005.]
[Parssinen M, Kujala U, Vartiainen E, Sarna S, Seppala T. Increased premature mortality of competitive powerlifters suspected to have used anabolic agents. Int J Sports Med. 2000;21:225-227.]
[Petersson A, Garle M, Granath F, Thiblin I. Morbidity and mortality in patients testing positively for the presence of anabolic androgenic steroids in connection with receiving medical care. A controlled retrospective cohort study. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2005 Aug 23; [Epub ahead of print]
[Zlotnick JA. Problems found in the preparticipation sports exam in the general and special needs populations. Program and abstracts of the American Academy of Family Physicians Annual Scientific [Assembly; September 28-October 2, 2005; San Francisco, California. Abstract 101.]
[The Brain Injury Association. Available at http://www.biausa.org/Pages/home.html. Accessed November 1, 2005.]
[Baldwin-Johnson CL. Methamphetamine: a growing epidemic. Program and abstracts of the American Academy of Family Physicians Annual Scientific Assembly; September 28-October 2, 2005; San Francisco, California. Abstract 14. Available at http://www.aafp.org/x38639.xml. Accessed November 21, 2005.]
[Grunbaum JA, Kann L, Kinchen S, et al. Youth risk behavior surveillance–United States, 2003. MMWR Surveill Summ. 2004;53:1-96.]
[Colorado Alliance for Drug-Endangered Children. Available at www.colodec.org. Accessed November 1, 2005]
[Charles P. Vega, M.D., Medscape Family Medicine]

“Cocaine and anabolic-androgenic steroid abuse have become major drug problems in the United States. Cocaine has been designated as “the drug of greatest national health concern” while as many as 1 million Americans have used or are currently using anabolic-androgenic steroids to promote athletic performance and/or improve physical appearance. Unfavorable cardiovascular events have been linked to both cocaine and anabolic-androgenic steroid abuse in healthy, physically active individuals. Deaths of several United States athletes in 1986 focused attention of the life-threatening cardiovascular consequences of cocaine abuse.

“Reports of myocardial injury with anabolic-androgenic steroid abuse are anecdotal. Nevertheless, case reports have illustrated the alarming cardiotoxic potential of these steroids in athletes. Over 500,000 of the individuals currently taking anabolic-androgenic steroids for nonmedical purposes are high-school children.

“Because cocaine and anabolic-androgenic steroids are used improperly, more focus needs to be paid to the toxic mechanisms of their adverse effects. Furthermore, we would like to illustrate that contrary to the popular belief, acute and chronic abuse of cocaine and anabolic-androgenic steroids have a negative impact on exercise performance.”
[Cardiotoxic effects of cocaine and anabolic-androgenic steroids in the athlete, Allison A. Welder, Russell B. Melcheert, Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods, Volume 29, Issue 2, April 1993, Pages 61–68]
The Pursuit of Fame and Fortune

“International sports issues and the law revolve primarily around the Olympic Games. The international Olympic rules, policies, and procedures have faced national and international legal challenges and other disputes including outright boycotts since it began again back in 1896.

“As exposure of the Olympics has increased, so too has the money involved in the Olympic Games at all levels. Athletes compete for international fame and fortune by winning a medal.[1]

“Professional athletes are now commonplace during the Olympics as well. In fact, the United States sent professional basketball players such as Michael Jordan to compete in the summer games in Barcelona, Spain, in 1992. The U.S. Olympic Committee now awards cash prizes to American athletes based on their performance at the Olympics, a practice that other countries have offered for a long time.

“Countries, as well as states and provinces within countries, fiercely compete for the ability to hold the Olympic Games within their borders. The possibility of sizeable monetary rewards to athletes has tempted many Olympic participants to use illegal and unethical means to obtain an unfair advantage over other competitors despite the Olympic system’s set of strict guidelines and rules with regard to illegal drugs. Additionally, the IOC has suspended and permanently banned many medal competitors (and sometimes winners) for violations of the rules.[2]

“The modern Olympic Games began in 1896 in Athens, Greece. A competitor was seen as someone who competed only for the love of the sport without regard to financial rewards or fame. Today, the Olympics are no longer just for amateurs. Professional athletes are also allowed to compete.

“Unfortunately, the Olympic Games have become increasingly commercialized and now serve as a showcase for major countries, athletes, corporate promotions and international politics.

“Every person or organization that plays any part whatsoever in the Olympic Movement has to accept the supreme authority of the IOC and be bound by its Rules and submit to its jurisdiction. It is the supreme authority in decisions regarding the suspension, expulsion, or disqualification of all athletes[6]

“Being the supreme authority of the Olympic Movement, the IOC is the final authority on all questions concerning the Olympic Games and the Olympic Movement, including matters of discipline affecting athletes and coaches.

“Additionally, the IOC is the final arbiter for permanent and temporary penalties of all kinds, the heaviest of which are suspension, expulsion, disqualification, and exclusion. The powers of the IOC are absolute. [7]

“It is possible that athletes from one country might be treated differently from athletes from another country. This has led to numerous domestic and international lawsuits. The introduction of the International Council of Arbitration for Sport (ICAS) and its supervision over the CAS were designed to deal with ensuring that athletes around the world are treated the same for similar violations of the Olympic Movement.[8]

“The IOC recognizes national Olympic committees (NOCs) as the sole authorities responsible for representing their respective countries at the Olympic Games as well as at other events sponsored by the IOC. For the United States, the NOC is the United States Olympic Committee (USOC), which was originally chartered by Congress as an independent corporation on September 21, 1950.

“The USOC exercises exclusive jurisdiction over all matters pertaining to the participation of the United States in the Olympic Games and in the Pan American Games.

“The authority for the creation of National Governing Bodies is found in the Amateur Sports Act. The authority of the NGBs includes recommending individual athletes to the USOC for participation in the Olympic or Pan American Games as well as establishing internal procedures for determining eligibility standards. [10]

“The Ted Stevens Olympic and Amateur Sports Act established the United States Olympic Committee and provided for the national governing bodies for each Olympic sport. The Act provides important legal protection for individual athletes.[11]

“The Amateur Sports Act charters the US Olympic Committee, which in turn can charter a national governing body (NGB) for each sport, such as USA Swimming, the United States Ski Team or the United States Figure Skating Association. Each NGB in turn establishes the rules for selecting the United States Olympic Team and promotes amateur competition in that sport. The Act requires that active athletes (defined as amateur athletes who have represented the United States in international amateur competition within the last ten years) must hold 20 percent of the voting power of any board or committee in an NGB. The Act also provides athletes with due process and appeal rights concerning eligibility disputes.[12]

“The Act gives exclusive rights of usage of the words Olympic and Olympiad to the Olympic Committee. The Committee used this act to sue other organizations which used this term “Olympics”, such as the Gay Olympics.[13] The United States government controls the very existence of the USOC. In seeking protection from suspension procedures, many athletes have attempted to obtain shelter in the due process provision of the Fifth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution but have failed each time.[14] The United States Olympic Committee and now the United States Anti-Doping Agency, both serve as “private” regulators for the United States Olympic Movement. This private sector status of sport regulation in the United States has created a significant accountability vacuum. As a result, athletes’ constitutional liberty and property interests are threatened because athletes are not given meaningful due process protections to protect their eligibility. Steps should be taken to promote greater accountability for the United States Olympic Movement, so that the athletes who serve to enhance our nation’s prestige do not risk their due process rights in the process. [15]
[USLegal, Sports Law Home, International Sports Issues]
[1] Id. pp.191 [2] Id. pp.192 [3] Id. p.193 [4] Id. [5] Id. p.194 [6] Id. [7] Id. [8] Id. pp.195 [9] Id. [10] Id. [11] Id. pp.198 [12] Id. [13] Id. [14] Id. – See more at: http://sportslaw.uslegal.com/international-sports-issues/#sthash.opfIOecE.dpuf
[15] Dionne L. Koller, How the United States Government Sacrifices Athletes’ Constitutional Rights in the Pursuit of National Prestige. B.Y.U. Law Rev., Fall 2008.

Abusive Sex, Drugs and Money Rolls and on Child and Youth Athletes they take their tolls. Child Athlete Abusive Sex is illegal. Doping is against the Rules of Play and For the love of money is the root of all evil [Timothy 6: 10 ]

At the end of the rainbow there is a pot of gold for just a miniscule number of Child and Youth Athletes, but the cost to many other Athletes during the quest is brutal.

From the Greek Olympic Ideal in the beginning to what appears to be another Roman Gladiator experience, countless sports cultures are now throwing Child and Youth Athletes into an arena with the lions.

We will win control over Child and Youth Athlete Abuse Syndrome, doping, and the inappropriate, mislead quest for fame and fortune in sports
• when society looks at sports for exactly what they are, just games
• when government makes “crystal clear public policy,” that Child and Youth Athletes do not relinquish their Human Rights once they begin sports participation
• when Coaches understand that they are Children’s “Temporary Substitute Caretakers, not professional Coaches, in the eyes of the law. [123HelpMe.com][mbmsrmd]

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *