Because an Athlete includes all race, color, religion, creed, sex, sexual orientation, gender identity, national origin, ancestry, age, veteran status, disability, genetic abnormality, military status, any other protected status, training, education, amateur, professional, stamina, physical ability or inability, team or group, individual, different goals, times, places…… an athlete has all human rights under the law and equal opportunities.
The International Classification of Disease and Procedures is all inclusive and defines injuries and health conditions of Athletes by the activities in which they participated.
ICD-10 Category Y93 is provided for use to classify the activity of the person (for example Athlete) seeking healthcare for an injury or health condition that has been sustained during participation in that activity.
Therefore, in my humble opinion, from my experience and sources 1. And 2. below, the best inclusive definition of Athlete is:
an Athlete is a participant in the activities of Sports, Recreation, and Exercise.
The reason for the participation, willfully or not, is irrelevant.
Likewise, when a Coach is required, which is not always the case, Athletes are supervised, instructed and coached in the activities of Sports, Recreation, and Exercise.
1. Athlete Scandinavian Definitioin: Athlete definition from medical and health sciences research from the Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/sms.12632/abstract
2. Athlete definition according to the American College of Cardiology:
Thank you SB for the cue.