CHILD AND YOUTH DEFINITIONS

The presence of a Child is a Gift, placed in “perfect trust’ with parents and other adults. A Child’s value cannot be measured. Psalm 127:3-5. [Sis. Vickie Oliver]

‘Youth’ is not the equivalent term for ‘Child’ or ‘Children’. Please be specific when applying these terms.

We, who are adamantely concerned advocates for the Prevention of Child Abuse, understand that the umbrella of Child Protection follows each and every Child into each and every activity, concious or otherwise, which means, while in each and every venue or location, on every worldwide inch of ground and beyond, during every nano-second of time, one drop of Abuse and Maltreatment will not be tolerated.

We, who are adamantely concerned advocates for the Prevention of Child Abuse, endevor to be on the same page with others during instruction, training and research.

For example, the title of an up and coming training, an admirable, needed program, sponsored by Kentucky Attorney General, Andy Beshear, and The Child Sexual Abuse and Exploitation Prevention Board, is titled: ‘Preventing Child Sexual Abuse in Youth Serving Organizations through Risk Reductions’ Practices’

This is a vitally important instruction for “summer camps, colleges, universities, athletic organizations, the faith community, schools and other youth serving organizations, which all have a duty to ensure children and youth they serve are safe while under their care,” as stated in the training’s description.

These trainings are extremely important, but, this training is improperly termed and labeled. We adamant advocates appreciate Attorney General Andy Beshear’s dedication and duty to Children. Attorney General Besehar and the other training authors endevors are sincere and pure, but the term, ‘Youth’ is incorrect. Rather than ‘Youth Serving Organizations’ (sic), the title should instead include ‘Organizations Serving Children’. ‘Youth’ is inconsistent with the term ‘Child’ and ‘Children’. ‘Youth’ is not the equivalent term for ‘Child’ or ‘Children’, which will be explained below.

Narrative changes during instruction from improper terminology, as in this mis-title, reinforce all the malfunctions concerned advocates deplore, which are in already compromised conditions.

Imprecise, disorganized communications between doctors, healthcare personnel, attorneys, judges, justice department personnel, department of community based services, child protection services and others will result. Failure to report abusive incidents, misdiagnoses, maltreatments, injustices and prevention will deteriorate from improper terminology.

Remaining consistent with the ICD-10 codes for classifications of disease and their therapeutic procedures, consistent with the World Health Organization (WHO), U.S. Codes of Law, U.N., Prevent Child Abuse America (PCAA) and Prevent Child Abuse each state, regulaltions and definitions for Child and Youth are cited in this publication, which are used on this website.

Accordingly, the ICD-10 Codes, WHO, U.S. Laws, U.N. and PCAA and PCA for each state, line-up together maximizing interagency communications. Public Policies promulgated, publicized, and communicated by all federal and state Actors and Agencies, every advocate and all concerned, will be able to ‘talk’ with crystal clearity.

“The International Classification of Diseases (currently ICD-10, effective Oct. 1, 2015) is the international “standard diagnostic tool for epidemiology, health management and clinical purposes”. Its full official name is International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. [1]

“The ICD is maintained by the World Health Organization (WHO), the directing and coordinating authority for health within the United Nations System.[2]

“The ICD is designed as a health care classification system, providing a system of diagnostic codes for classifying diseases, including nuanced classifications of a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances, and external causes of injury or disease.

“This system is designed to map health conditions to corresponding generic categories together with specific variations, assigning for these a designated code, up to six characters long. Thus, major categories are designed to include a set of similar diseases.”[International Classification of Diseases (ICD)”World Health Organization 12 February 2014] [WHO, World Health Organization, 9 February 2014]

“The World Health Organization (WHO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health. It was established on 7 April 1948, headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland. The WHO is a member of the United Nations Development Group. Its predecessor, the Health Organization, was an agency of the League of Nations.

“The constitution of the World Health Organization had been signed by 61 countries on 22 July 1946, with the first meeting of the World Health Assembly finishing on 24 July 1948. It incorporated the Office international d’hygiène publique and the League of Nations Health Organization. Since its creation, it has played a leading role in the eradication of smallpox. Its current priorities include communicable diseases, in particular HIV/AIDS, Ebola, malaria and tuberculosis; the mitigation of the effects of non-communicable diseases; sexual and reproductive health, development, and ageing; nutrition, food security and healthy eating; occupational health; substance abuse; and driving the development of reporting, publications, and networking.

“The WHO is responsible for the World Health Report, the worldwide World Health Survey, and World Health Day. The Director-General of WHO is Tedros Adhanom who started his five-year term on 1 July 2017.” [ Dr Tedros takes office as WHO Director-General”. World Health Organization. July 1, 2017.]

YOUTH: “UNESCO (United Nations Education, Science, Culture and Communication) uses the United Nations’ universal definition. The UN, for statistical consistency across regions, defines ‘YOUTH’, as those persons between the ages of 15 and 24 years, without prejudice to other definitions by Member States.”

“Youth” is best understood as a period of transition from the dependence of childhood to adulthood’s independence and awareness of our interdependence as members of a community. Youth is a more fluid category than a fixed age-group.

However, age is the easiest way to define this group, particularly in relation to education and employment. Therefore “youth” is often indicated as a person between the age where he/she may leave compulsory education, and the age at which he/she finds his/her first employment. This latter age limit has been increasing, as higher levels of unemployment and the cost of setting up an independent household puts many young people into a prolonged period of dependency.

The definined age of youth has not been shown to decrease, over time from country to country, therby increasing the period of dependency. Therefore, youth and child are not interchangeable terms by definitions worldwide. Youth are briefly ‘mionr’ i.e 15-18. ‘Minor youth’ is an implausible, unreasonable term. Exchanging the terms child and youth in the same context or discussion is unnecessary.

When carrying out its Youth Strategy, UNESCO uses different definitions of youth depending on the context.

For activities at international or at regional level, such as the African Youth Forum, UNESCO uses the United Nations’ universal definition.

The UN, for statistical consistency across regions, defines ‘youth’, as those persons between the ages of 15 and 24 years, without prejudice to other definitions by Member States. All UN statistics on youth are based on this definition, as illustrated by the annual yearbooks of statistics published by the United Nations system on demography, education, employment and health.

For activities at the national level, for example when implementing a local community youth programme, “youth” may be understood in a more flexible manner. UNESCO will then adopt the definition of “youth” as used by a particular Member State. It can be based for instance on the definition given in the African Youth Charter where “youth” means “every person between the ages of 15 and 35 years.”
[What do we mean by “youth”? United Nations Education, Science, Culture and Communication, WWW.UNESCO.ORG]

For the purposes of this website youth are defined by ages 15-24 for statistical consistency.

CHILD: U.S. Code › Title 18 › Part I › Chapter 110 › § 2256, 18 U.S. Code § 2256 – Definitions for chapter

For the purposes of this U.S. Code chapter, the term, Child:

(1) “minor” means any person under the age of eighteen years;
(2)(A)Except as provided in subparagraph (B), “sexually explicit conduct” means actual or simulated—
(i) sexual intercourse, including genital-genital, oral-genital, anal-genital, or oral-anal, whether between persons of the same or opposite sex;
(ii) bestiality;
(iii) masturbation;
(iv) sadistic or masochistic abuse; or
(v) lascivious exhibition of the genitals or pubic area of any person;
(B) For purposes of subsection 8(B) [1] of this section, “sexually explicit conduct” means—
(i) graphic sexual intercourse, including genital-genital, oral-genital, anal-genital, or oral-anal, whether between persons of the same or opposite sex, or lascivious simulated sexual intercourse where the genitals, breast, or pubic area of any person is exhibited;
(ii)graphic or lascivious simulated;
(I) bestiality;
(II)masturbation; or
(III)sadistic or masochistic abuse; or
(iii)graphic or simulated lascivious exhibition of the genitals or pubic area of any person;
(3)“producing” means producing, directing, manufacturing, issuing, publishing, or advertising;
(4)“organization” means a person other than an individual;
(5)“visual depiction” includes undeveloped film and videotape, data stored on computer disk or by electronic means which is capable of conversion into a visual image, and data which is capable of conversion into a visual image that has been transmitted by any means, whether or not stored in a permanent format;
(6)“computer” has the meaning given that term in section 1030 of this title;
(7)“custody or control” includes temporary supervision over or responsibility for a minor whether legally or illegally obtained;
(8)“child pornography” means any visual depiction, including any photograph, film, video, picture, or computer or computer-generated image or picture, whether made or produced by electronic, mechanical, or other means, of sexually explicit conduct, where—
(A)the production of such visual depiction involves the use of a minor engaging in sexually explicit conduct;
(B)such visual depiction is a digital image, computer image, or computer-generated image that is, or is indistinguishable from, that of a minor engaging in sexually explicit conduct; or
(C)such visual depiction has been created, adapted, or modified to appear that an identifiable minor is engaging in sexually explicit conduct.
(9)“identifiable minor”—
(A)means a person—
(i)
(I)who was a minor at the time the visual depiction was created, adapted, or modified; or
(II)whose image as a minor was used in creating, adapting, or modifying the visual depiction; and
(ii)who is recognizable as an actual person by the person’s face, likeness, or other distinguishing characteristic, such as a unique birthmark or other recognizable feature; and
(B)shall not be construed to require proof of the actual identity of the identifiable minor.
(10)“graphic”, when used with respect to a depiction of sexually explicit conduct, means that a viewer can observe any part of the genitals or pubic area of any depicted person or animal during any part of the time that the sexually explicit conduct is being depicted; and
(11)the term “indistinguishable” used with respect to a depiction, means virtually indistinguishable, in that the depiction is such that an ordinary person viewing the depiction would conclude that the depiction is of an actual minor engaged in sexually explicit conduct. This definition does not apply to depictions that are drawings, cartoons, sculptures, or paintings depicting minors or adults.
[Legal Information Institute, Cornell Law School]

For the purposes of United Nations, the term, Child:

Convention on the Rights of the Child, Adopted and opened for signature, ratification and accession by General Assembly resolution 44/25 of 20 November 1989 entry into force 2 September 1990, in accordance with article 49

“Recalling that, in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the United Nations has proclaimed that childhood is entitled to special care and assistance,

“Convinced that the family, as the fundamental group of society and the natural environment for the growth and well-being of all its members and particularly children, should be afforded the necessary protection and assistance so that it can fully assume its responsibilities within the community,

Recognizing that the child, for the full and harmonious development of his or her personality, should grow up in a family environment, in an atmosphere of happiness, love and understanding,

“Considering that the child should be fully prepared to live an individual life in society, and brought up in the spirit of the ideals proclaimed in the Charter of the United Nations, and in particular in the spirit of peace, dignity, tolerance, freedom, equality and solidarity,

“Bearing in mind that the need to extend particular care to the child has been stated in the Geneva Declaration of the Rights of the Child of 1924 and in the Declaration of the Rights of the Child adopted by the General Assembly on 20 November 1959 and recognized in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, in the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (in particular in articles 23 and 24), in the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (in particular in article 10) and in the statutes and relevant instruments of specialized agencies and international organizations concerned with the welfare of children,

“Bearing in mind that, as indicated in the Declaration of the Rights of the Child, “the child, by reason of his physical and mental immaturity, needs special safeguards and care, including appropriate legal protection, before as well as after birth”,

“Recalling the provisions of the Declaration on Social and Legal Principles relating to the Protection and Welfare of Children, with Special Reference to Foster Placement and Adoption Nationally and Internationally; the United Nations Standard Minimum Rules for the Administration of Juvenile Justice (The Beijing Rules); and the Declaration on the Protection of Women and Children in Emergency and Armed Conflict,

Recognizing that, in all countries in the world, there are children living in exceptionally difficult conditions, and that such children need special consideration,

“Taking due account of the importance of the traditions and cultural values of each people for the protection and harmonious development of the child,

Recognizing the importance of international co-operation for improving the living conditions of children in every country, in particular in the developing countries, Have agreed as follows:

PART I, Article 1
For the purposes of the present Convention, a child means every human being below the age of eighteen years (<18) unless under the law applicable to the child, majority is attained earlier. Article 3, 1. In all actions concerning children, whether undertaken by public or private social welfare institutions, courts of law, administrative authorities or legislative bodies, the best interests of the child shall be a primary consideration. Up to and including article 54.“ [United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child] For the purposes of The Hague Convention on Jurisdiction, etc., for the Protection of Children 1996[38], Child: The Hague Convention on Jurisdiction, Applicable Law, Recognition, Enforcement and Co-operation in Respect of Parental Responsibility and Measures for the Protection of Children (1996 Convention) covers a wide range of civil child protection measures, “from orders concerning parental responsibility and contact to public measures of protection or care, and from matters of representation to the protection of children’s property.”[39] The Preamble confirms “that the best interests of the child are to be a primary consideration.” Article 2 stipulates that the Convention is applicable “to children from the moment of their birth until they reach the age of 18 years.” [40] [38] The 1996 Convention was adopted on October 19, 1996, and entered into force January 1, 2002. 35 I.L.M. 1391, 1396 (1996). Preamble and 63 articles. Online text, Hague Conference on Private International Law (HCCH). How Children’s Voices Are Heard in Protective Proceedings, Representing Children Worldwide (RCW) (2005) (the study covers 250 jurisdictions), Gloria Folger DeHart, The Relationship Between the 1980 Child Abduction Convention and the 1996 Protection Convention, 33:1 Journal of International Law and Politics 83 (2000), (PDF). JILP devoted to the 1980 Convention, 20th anniversary. [39] The Hague Convention of 1996 on the International Protection of Children, HCCH Web site, [40] Id.

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