CHILD-ATHLETE-BASED DISCRIMINATION AND EXPLOITATION

Children from all walks of life converge on America’s playgrounds and Sports facilities, daily, with the expectation that their differences will be respected and that the Coach will provide an environment that nurtures their diversity and the Coach will protect and properly supervise them. But all coaches are not the same. Some are Problematic Coaches.

Discrimination

Concious Discrimination is the realization that some people have differences, variations and contrasts but other people don’t accept those differences. [8.]

“Discrimination is the prejudicial treatment of a person or group based on class or category (or certain characteristics).”

“Discrimination is an assault on the very notion of Human Rights. Discrimination is the systematic denial of certain peoples’ or groups’ full Human Rights because of who they are, what they do or what they believe.” [19.]

“Discrimination against children can be more severe than that against adults because children often have less social power. In part, this can be attributed to the lack of recognition of children’s rights and children’s dependence on adults to make decisions for them, reinforced by society’s reluctance to relinquish that decision-making power until the child reaches the accepted age of consent.”

Exploitation is an act that exploits, unfairly treats, victimizes or uses someone’s qualities, attributes and abilities for their own advantage i.e. Child Athlete Sexual Abuse and Utilization of Child Athletes for selfish purposes advertising, publicity, and money. [6.]

The Erotic Discriminations and Child Ahtete Exploitations of Coach Pedophiles are not socio-cultural choices and don’t follow the usual defintion of concious Discrimination and Exploitation. They are subconcious Central Nervous System Pathological Based Abnormalities and Discriminations. [33.]

In the case of Child Athletes, the diversity subject of this publication is their Innocent, Susceptible, and Vulnerable Age when trained by a Problematic or Predator Coach.

Child and Youth Athletes share a unique vulnerability and susceptibility and need special protection to promote their physical, mental, spiritual, moral, and social development.

Recent research has shown that excessive sports practice and pressure associated with performance sport are considered a violation of children’s rights. Some sports are considered among the ‘worst forms of child labour’ due to the dangerous nature of the sport itself. [31.]

Stereotypically Macho Child and Youth Athletes, who are not “Little Macho Adults,” are Exploited and Abused by Problematic Coaches that some Problematic Parents and Sport Societies support with defective “logic” and motivation. [29.] [30.]

Let’s be clear from the beginning. This report is about “Problematic and/or Predator Coaches”. Not all Coaches are “Problematic or Predators”, of course. In fact, the majority, are dependable, trustworthy, mentors. But a few bad apples spoil the lot, just like Doctors, Lawyers, Judges, Teachers, Ministers, Boy Scout leaders etc. The reams of paperwork and laws line the walls of growing Court Houses because of the Criminal minority.

Child Athlete Abuse Syndrome is a Short Title for a Clustering of Child (<18) or Youth (15-18) Athlete Serious Injury, Disease and/or Death secondary to:

► Physical endangerment, maltreatment and/or abuse
► Psychological (Emotional) endangerment, maltreatment and/or abuse
► Sexual Abuse
► Failed child custodial protection
► Negligent care giving supervision
► Human rights violations
► That were inflicted, caused, created, or allowed to be inflicted, caused, created, directly or indirectly by the Problematic Coach, including the Strength Training, Conditioning and other specialty Coach, Problematic Parent or other Problematic Caretaker Person who has Child and Youth Athlete custodial protection, supervision, care and control during Sports, Recreation and Exercise Participation
► Failure to report the morbidity and mortality to Authorities is Illegal. [1.] [6.]
► In most United States, Children are minors when less than 18 years of age.
► The United Nations define Youth as persons between the ages of 15-24.

These can also be considered Child-Athlete Discrimination or Bias-Motivated Crimes; not only Child Abuse and Neglect. A Bias-Motivated Crime is a legal category used to describe a prejudice or preconception about certain personal characteristics i.e. different appearance, different nationality, language, race, religion, sexual orientation, disability, class, ethnicity, gender, social status, political affiliation and different age.

This is about Child-Athlete-Age-Bias–Motivation secondary to the Preconception that Child Athletes are “Little Macho Adult” Athletes for the necessity, pleasure and romantic love by Problematic or Predator Coaches during Sports Participation. Disinhibition and lack of restraint are manifest and neural pathways appear to have been disconnected.

“In the 1970s, our sporting culture began a drastic shift. Sports became big business. Although professional athletics certainly existed before this, sports historically considered amateur for youth, were, in reality, becoming more and more professional in terms of long-term objectives.”

“Youth soccer, basketball, football, and hockey leagues were being increasingly defined as breeding grounds for future pro athletes, rather than as organizations that taught fair play and provided a safe place for having fun and making friends.”

Thus Child and Youth Athletes were becoming “professionalized” and nowadays Parents and Coaches are obsessed with their Athletic success.

Young Athletes have been encouraged to specialize in one sport and play that Sport year-round. However, “children’s bones and musculature are not nearly as developed as those of adults.”

The successes of the tennis Williams sisters and golfer Tiger Woods reinforce early specialization and Parents and Coaches buy-in.

Expert (The AmAcOrthopedSurgery) research has shown when children engage in the same type of physical movements repeatedly, multiple serious orthopedic injuries develop and cause permanent damage. [29.] [30.]

Until 1960 Children were deemed simply “Little Adults”. Human Growth and Development and Developmental Psychology were merely theoretical terms, not lectured and not practiced. Few understood those sciences.

Jean Piaget began was born in Switzerland in 1896. He pioneered many fields of science including genetic epistemology “a branch of philosophy that investigates the origin, nature methods, and limits of human knowledge”, cognitive theory, and developmental psychology.

However, for many years there was no interest. “Between 1932 and 1950 not a single one of his books were translated into English. But by 1960 his ideas were being jubilantly rediscovered by American psychologists.” [26.]

Piaget emphasized that Children are not “Little Adults” and have their own pace of Human Growth and Development of Knowledge, Cognitive Ability and Psychology. Therein is the fatal flaw of the Problematic Coach.

Problematic Coaches err with Piaget’s and contemporary scientists’ theory by attempting to make Child Athletes behave mentally, physically and athletically like “Little Adult Athletes”. Those tactics and that bias are is developmentally inappropriate and too advanced for Child Athletes.

Piaget notes that every child develops at a different rate. Instead of holding each child to a set of uniform adult standards, for example, the Child Athlete’s performance should be on “an individual Child basis.”

“The stages of intellectual development formulated by Piaget appear to be related to major developments in brain growth. The human brain is not fully developed until late adolescence or in the case of males sometimes early adulthood.” Problematic Coaches often expect children to think and act like adults when they are not yet capable of doing so.

Coaches expectations for their child Athletes at a given age “must be realistic and in line with their Age of Development.” [22.][23.][24.][25.]

As described above, after 1970 Young Athletes began becoming professionalized. Their Role as Children with Athlete Safety 1st has been double jeopardized because they are perceived as “Professionalized Macho Little Adult Athletes”. Child and Youth Athletes have become sandwiched between an Old Cultural Tradition and a New Coaching Custom.

In addition to experiencing discrimination as a group age less than 18, children face discrimination on all the other grounds described above or a combination of such factors.

All forms of preference, advantage and discrimination against and for children are exacerbated by virtue of the victims’ age and vulnerability, which provide them fewer opportunities to be heard or to challenge any discriminatory preferential acts perpetuated against them.

”Although the UN Convention on Rights of the Child (CRC) only mentions certain grounds of discrimination explicitly, it recognizes the possibility of other grounds of discrimination from which children are entitled to protection.”

“However, despite numerous measures designed to eradicate it, discrimination remains rampant.”

“As a result, a number of other human rights treaties such as the UN Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (CERD), the Convention on Elimination on All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW), and the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) have been ratified separately to help guarantee the full spectrum of rights (civil and political, as well as economic, social and cultural rights) for specific groups of people.”

“In 1989, world leaders decided that children need special protection. Every year millions of children worldwide are subjected to violence, exploitation, trafficking, discrimination or other abuses.

“Millions more remain without adequate protection. Protecting children from violence, exploitation and abuse is an integral component of protecting their rights to survival, growth and development.

“The CRC is the first legally binding international instrument to incorporate the full range of children’s human rights—civil, cultural, economic, political and social rights—in a single text. The Convention sets out these rights in 54 articles which can be grouped into three broad categories.

“Protection rights: These rights include protection from all forms of child abuse, neglect, exploitation and cruelty, including the right to special protection in times of war and protection from abuse in the criminal justice system. [20.]

CHILD AND YOUTH AMATEUR ATHLETE HUMAN RIGHTS [Numbers refer to the Section of the Treaty 1989 United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child]

• Right to non-discrimination 2
• Principles of the Best Interests of the Child 3
• Right to provide appropriate direction and guidance 5
• Right of Development 6
• Right to an identity and nationality 7
• Right not to be separated from their parents 9
• Right to have their views taken into account 12
• Freedom of Expression and Association 13 15
• Protection of privacy 16
• Right to access appropriate information 17
• Protection from Abuse and Neglect and other forms of Violence 19
• Right to Health 24
• Right to Education 28 29
• Right to rest, leisure, recreation and cultural activities 31
• Right to be protected from
1. Economic exploitation 32
2. Illegal drugs 33
3. Sexual exploitation 34
4. Abduction, trafficking, and sale 35
5. Other forms of exploitation 36
6. Right to benefit from Rehabilitation Care 39
7. Right to Due and Fair Process 40 [21.]

A CHILD-CENTRED SPORT SYSTEM has 10 fundamental principles:

• Equity, non-discrimination, fairness
• Best interest of the child, children first
• Evolving capacities of the child
• Subject of Rights, exercise of Rights
• Consultation, the child’s opinion, informed participation
• Appropriate direction and guidance
• Mutual respect, support and responsibility
• Highest attainable standard of health
• Transparency, accountability, monitoring
• Excellence [21.]

The grounds for Discrimination for fifty-three (53) categories of Children have been identified by the Children’s Rights International Network Committee after examination of submitted reports.

These grounds are reasons that have been specified by law that will serve as a basis for demanding relief. Child-Athlete-Based Discrimination grounds exist because of the following manifestations:

• Age of the Child, 18 years and less
• Physical and Psychological (Emotional) Maltreatment and Endangerment resulting in serious injuries and death, Sexual Abuse and Human Rights Violations after Children are placed in Substitute Care
• Children whose Freedom and Rights are violated. Suffer Human Rights disorders [6.]
• Children subjected to Violence and Abuse after placed in Substitute Care[1.]
• Child and Youth Athlete Health Disparity Population [5.]
• Ignorance of the Law concerning the tight entwinement of the Coach-Substitute-Caretaker + Child Athlete + State, the Tripartite Relationship
• Ignorance of the Law concerning the Parens Patriae Doctrine. the Tripartite Relationship legal framework [8.]
• Ignorance of the Law concerning the Coach-Substitute-Caretaker in Child Abuse Prevention Reauthorization of 2010, Public Law 111-320 because of failed authorship, publication and promulgation [7.]

CHILD AND YOUTH ATHLETES ARE A HEALTH DISPARITY POPULATION

Child and Youth Athletes are a “Health Disparity Population. (HDP).” These particular HDPs are advanced by Physical and Psychological Endangerment and Maltreatment, Sexual Abuse and Human Rights Violations, secondary to improper Child Protection and Supervision by the Problematic Coach. Child Athletes often do not achieve the highest attainable standard of health under Problematic Coaches.

“A health disparity is a particular type of difference in health or one of the most important influences on health that could potentially be shaped by policies. It is a difference in which disadvantaged social groups have persistently experienced social disadvantage or discrimination and systematically experience worse health or greater health risks than more advantaged social groups.” [4.]

Defined in US Public Health Safety Act: “A population is a ‘Health Disparity Population’ if there is a significant disparity in the overall rate of disease incidence, prevalence, morbidity, mortality, or survival rates in the population as compared to the health status of the general population, in addition to the meaning so given, the Director may determine that such term includes populations for which there is a significant disparity in the quality, outcomes, cost, or use of health care services or access to or satisfaction with such services as compared to the general population.” [5.]

Young Athlete Rights are violated by tactics and circumstances to which Child and Youth Non-Athletes are not subjected. This is a result of systemic Direct and Indirect “Child-Athlete-Based Discrimination” against Young Amateur Athletes.

Once Children put on the Sports Uniform they assume the identity of an Athlete and are no longer considered an innocent Child by the Problematic Coach. No matter their young age, they are subjected to Child Athlete Abuse Syndrome (CAAS) that is Inflicted, Caused, Created, or Allowed to be Inflicted, Caused, Created, Directly or Indirectly by the Problematic Coach.

Child and Youth Athletes, after blatant disregard for their immature, undeveloped age and blatant disregard for required Child Care by a Coach-Substitute-Caretakers have been:

• Run until collapse and death during dangerous Heat and Air Pollution
• Spanked for missing free throw shots in basketball
• Over-Exercised to kidney failure, Rhabdomyolysis
• Screamed at and called “worthless’ relentlessly to Post Traumatic Stress Disorder
• Concussed until Brain Damaged
• Sexually Abused for team membership
• Thrown in the air while cheerleading until they fall to paraplegia
• Over-exercised to ACL injury
• So forth and so on

AGEISM, AGE DISCRIMINATION , ADULTOCRACY, AGEIST STEREOTYPING

Ageism, also called Age Discrimination is Stereotyping-of and Discrimination-against individuals or groups because of their age.
It is a set of beliefs, attitudes, norms, and values used to justify Age-Based Prejudice, Discrimination, and Subordination. [10.]

This may be Casual or Systematic. Child-Athlete-Based Discrimination and Child Athlete Abuse Syndrome are Systematic. Sports are organized Systems that utilize regular, methodical training and participation procedures to accomplish teamwork, goals and victory. [10.] [11.] [12.]

The term, Ageism, was coined in 1968 by Robert Neil Butler to describe Discrimination against groups of people. [13.]

“Ageism in common terminology and age studies usually refer to negative discriminatory practices against old people, people in their middle years, teenagers and children.”

“Adultocracy is the social convention which defines ‘maturity’ and ‘immaturity’, placing adults in a dominant position over young people, both theoretically and practically. An example is Zabernism which is a term for exploitation of the Power Gap that exists between the Coach and Child Athlete. [14.]

Ageism in addition to seniors is used to describe Prejudice and Discrimination against adolescents and children, including the assumption that youth should behave in certain ways because of their age. [15.]

In the case of Child-Athlete-Based Discrimination, Athletes are required to behave in ways harmful to Children and Youth.

“Ageist Stereotyping is a tool of cognition which involves categorizing into groups and attributing characteristics to these groups.”

“Stereotype Labeled Categories are necessary for processing huge volumes of information which would otherwise overload a person, and they are often based on a “grain of truth”. It becomes instant cataloging and recall. For example, Child and Youth Athletes are viewed as “Little Adults”.

“However, stereotyping causes harm when the content of the stereotype is incorrect with respect to most of the group or where a stereotype is so strongly held that it overrides evidence which shows that an individual does not conform to it.” [16.] This is harmful to Children when they are defined by their Sport, not their Age.

For example, Child-Athlete-Based Stereotypes cause Problematic Coaches, health care professionals, including Athletic Trainers and the Sport Culture to conclude that Child and Youth Athletes are “little adults”, not Young psychologically innocent, vulnerable, susceptible and physically immature Youth.

Child-Athlete-Based Stereotypes can inappropriately influence the above groups of adults and their actions and lead to Child Athlete Age-Based Discrimination and Child and Youth Athlete Abuse Syndrome.

The manner in which the Law looks at Age is important. For instance, the Law requires that all young persons in the U.S must be at least 16 years old in order to obtain a driver’s license. Whereas, Child Athletes can be 6 years old and even less.

Child Labor Laws are Federal and State Legislations that protect children by restricting the type and hours of work they perform. Conversely, Child Athletes work excessive hours to fill the coffers of their bosses, whoever they are.

Child and Youth Athletes minds and bodies are over-used, over-exercised, and over-worked during some Sports Participations. Young Athletes are pushed and punished beyond Physical and Emotional Limits and Preventable, Not-Accidental Morbidity and Mortality result. Some sustain Human Rights Violations and are Sexually Abused. Those are the tragedies from Child-Athlete-Based Discrimination.

“From what is known about the talent development literature, a concern is that, without developing the Love Of the Game, Children will not have the motivation to sustain the effort needed to pursue excellence that has been found to take as many as 10,000 hours or 10 years of deliberate practice to develop. [17.] 10,000 hours with a Coach is an enormous obligation.

“Most young athletes and their parents fail to realize that, depending on the sport, only 0.2% to 0.5% of high school athletes ever make it to the professional level. Yet, youth continue to specialize in 1 sport while participating on multiple teams and risk overuse and/or burnout if there is no break from athletics during the year.”

“The risks of overuse are more serious in the pediatric/adolescent athlete for several reasons. The growing bones of the young athlete cannot handle as much stress as the mature bones of adults”. Neither can the young growing minds.

The article in the Journal of Pediatrics stated, “The parent or pediatrician may wonder how hard a child should be pushed to train and compete. Ultimately, it is important for the medical practitioner to discuss the underlying motivation for sport participation with the athlete, the parent, and, possibly, the coach.”

“Unfortunately, too often the goal is skewed toward adult (parent/coach) goals either implicitly or explicitly. The parent often hopes the child will get a scholarship, become a professional athlete, or fulfill the parents’ unfulfilled childhood dreams. It is best to identify and focus on the child’s motivation and goals to provide guidance.” [18.]

The Problematic Coach seeks win-at-all-costs, fame, career advancement and improved bottom lines. Naturally, Coaches themselves and the Sport Culture expect them to be successful; but at the risk of Child Safety?

Young Athletes face “Age-Based Discrimination” during Sports Participation because of their dependence on a Problematic Coach.

But the Problematic Coach, who doesn’t properly Protect and Supervise Child Athletes disregards the Age of the Child and defines the Child Athlete by his or her calling, an Athlete.

Problematic Coach Offenders treat Young Athletes like “Little Adults” both physically and sexually. The American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons (AAOS) states that Young Athletes are not “Little Adults,” a coaching misconception. [9] That concept is one of the AAOS greatest Sports’ crusades.

The Role of the Child and the Role of the Athlete are juxtaposed. Child and Youth Athletes encounter Child-Athlete-Based Discrimination and Health Disparity once they begin Sport Participation under a Problematic Coach.

Both the Role of the Young Amateur Athlete, whose age when disregarded, and the prospects from Win-At-All-Costs, supports “Society’s Approved Child Athlete Abuse Syndrome.”

Battered Child Syndrome was reported in Journal of the American Medical Association in 1962. It evolved into our current Child Protection Laws. [28.]
In 1981, 19 years later, Dr. Edwin R. Guise and Dr. Richard M. Ball, in disapproval, first described the terms respectively:

• “Socially Approved Athletic Child Abuse”
• “Battered-Child-Athlete-Syndrome”, [ 27.]

While scholars understand, but seldom proclaim, the Role of the Coach-Substitute-Caretaker, that Legal Role and Duty are factual. The Role however is directly concealed within the text of the definitions Section 3. Paragraph 2. of Child Abuse Prevention Reauthorization Act, Public Law 111-320.

The true identity of the Child is indirectly misrepresented. Because the age of the Child-Person, a minor less than 18, during Sports Participation has been indirectly misconceived because the Role of the Coach-Substitute-Caretaker has been omitted in the Law.

Young Athletes lack the means for challenging the Discrimination and Health Disparity in which they find themselves.

Child-Athlete-Based Discrimination is further exacerbated by the following:

• Age
• reliance and dependency
• smaller physical size
• inability to defend themselves physically and psychologically
• afraid of angering the offender
• blame themselves for the abuse
• feel guilty and ashamed
• susceptible to force, not powerful
• susceptible to trickery by Coach offenders
• have no control over their own bodies
• unable to make others believe their complaint
• perpetrators are someone they love, trust and admire in the beginning, such as their Coach.

The Surgeon General described U.S. Systems in Crisis that encourage Child Abuse in general. Those same systems are at work in Sports and in turn Promote Closed Sports Societies that perpetuate ego, greed, excess, bottom lines and win-at-all-costs and result in CAAS. The systems in crisis are:

• Failed Health Care Personnel and Citizens Reporting for All Forms Child Abuse
• Failed Reporting includes Child Athlete Abuse Syndrome
• Failed Enforcement of Child Protective Laws by Authorities and the Criminal Justice System
• Inept Public Health Intervention
• Social and Child Welfare Services failures
• Lack of Education / Awareness services
• Failure of Doctors To Advise Against and Failure Doctors To Intervene: When Coaches Exercise and Punish Athletes Beyond Physical and Emotional Limitations
• Some Sports Medicine Doctors Have Sold Their Souls To The Coach) Don’t Take Helmets, Sneakers after serious injuries
• Failure Coach Education by High School and University Athletic Associations Concerning Child and Youth Athlete Protection Law
• Coaches and others were targeted as potential Abusers and Perpetrators by Surgeon General
• Lack of Attorney Standards of Practice and Guidelines in Child Protection Proceedings according to the NATIONAL ASSOCIATION of COUNSEL for CHILDREN (NACC) and the AMERICAN BAR ASSOCIATION (ABA)

THE FOLLOWING ARE ESSENTIAL TO BREAK THE CONTINUANCE OF CHILD-ATHLETE-BASED PHYSICAL AND SEXUAL EXPLOITATION, DISCRIMINATION AND ABUSE:

◙ Statutory amendment of Section3. Paragraph 2. definitions to include Coach-Substitute-Caretaker of Child Abuse Prevention Reauthorization of 2010, Public Law 111-320
◙ Thereafter, subsequent Enforcement
◙ Thereafter, State Performance Measures shall reflect the amendment to explain the Coacn-Caretaker Role in Sports, Recreation and Exercise.
◙ Thereafter, State Performance Measures shall reflect the Age, Physical and Mental Immaturity and Role of Child and Youth Athletes and their special need for Protection
◙ Coach-Caretakers shall “make peace with children’s differences”
◙ Coach-Caretakers shall understand that Child Athletes are not “Adult Macho Athletes” and their “gradual development speed” is independent of traditional and cultural preconception and bias.
◙ States shall alter their powers, duties and management functions satisfying compliance with the purposes for which the Federal funds and grants are made available to States by Federal Law
◙ Revised Statutes of Limitations for Child Athlete Abuse Violations

References:
1. [CRIN, Children’s Rights International Network. CRIN and Bill Bell, Eva Geidenmark, Gerison Lansdown, Monica Lindvall and Bandana Shrestha]
2. [The UN Committee on the Rights of the Child, UN Committee on Sport for Development and Peace]
3. [Source: Implementation Handbook for the Convention on the Rights of the Child, UNICEF, 2008]
4. [Annu Rev Public Health. 2006;27:167-94.,Health disparities and health equity: concepts and measurement., Braveman P.]
5. [Health Disparities in H.R. 3590 (Merged Senate Bill) “as defined in Section 485E (Sec. 931) Current Law Public Health Safety Act Sec. 1707(d)(3)) Policy]
6. [Human Rights in Youth Sports, Paulo David, 2005]
7. [SEC. 3. GENERAL DEFINITIONS. PARAGRAPH 2. of The Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Reauthorization Act of 2010, Public Law 111-320]
8. [West’s Encyclopedia of American Law, edition 2. Copyright 2008 and Online Dictionary.]
9. [Young Athletes are not Little Adults, American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons http://www.saveyourknees.org/kneeproblems/children.cfm]
10. [Kirkpatrick, George R.; Katsiaficas, George N.; Kirkpatrick, Robert George; Mary Lou Emery (1987). Introduction to critical sociology. Ardent Media. p. 261. ISBN 9780829015959.]
11. [Nelson, T. (Ed.) (2002). Ageism: Stereotyping and Prejudice against Older People. MIT Press. ISBN 978-0-262-64057-2.]
12. [Quadagno, J. (2008). The field of social gerontology. In E. Barrosse (Ed.), Aging & the life course: An introduction to social gerontology (pp. 2-23). New York: McGraw-Hill.]
13. [Kramarae, C. and Spender, D. (2000) Routledge International Encyclopedia of Women: Global Women’s Issues and Knowledge. Routledge. p. 29.]
14. [ Youth Liberation Z magazine]
15. [Young and Oppressed” – youthrights.org]
16. [Journal of Management (Posthuma, R. A., & Campion, M. A. (2009). Age stereotyping in the workplace: Common stereotypes, moderators, and future research directions. Journal of Management, 35, 158]
17. [Ericsson, K. A. (1996). (Ed.). The road to excellence: the acquisition of expert performance in the arts, sciences, sports, and games. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.]
18. [Pediatrics Vol. 119 No. 6 June 1, 2007 pp. 1242 -1245 Overuse Injuries, Overtraining, and Burnout in Child and Adolescent Athletes Joel S. Brenner, MD, MPH, and the Council on Sports Medicine and Fitness]
19. [Discrimination, Amnesty International, http://www.amnesty.org/en]
20. [DISCRIMINATION AND THE RIGHTS OF THE CHILD, Article 2, Convention of the Rights of the Child United Nations]
21. [Human Rights in Youth Sport by Paulo David, Secretary on Rights of the Child, Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, United Nation
22. [Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development, Jean Piaget’s cognitive developmental theory]
23. [Driscoll, Marcy Perkins. “6”. In Arnis Burvikovs. Psychology of Learning for Instruction (3rd ed.). Boston: Pearson Education, Inc.]
24. [Berly A. Geber, ed. Piaget and Knowing Studies in Genetic Epistemology (3rd ed.). London: Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd.]
25. [Vuyk, Rita. “3”. In Arnis Burvikovs. Overview and Critique of Piaget’s Genetic Epistemology, 1965-1980, Volume 1 (1st ed.). London: Academic Press Inc.]
26. [Jean Piaget’s Genetic Epistemology:, Appreciation and Critique, Robert L. Campbell, Department of Psychology, Clemson University http://hubcap.clemson.edu/~campber/index.html]
27.[ Weekly World News, Jan 20, 1981, Health News]
28. [“The Battered-Child Syndrome”, C. Henry Kempe, M.D.; Frederic N. Silverman, M.D.; Brandt F. Steele, M.D.; William Droegemueller, M.D. ; Henry K. Silver, M.D., JAMA. 1962;181(1):17-24.]
29. [Cary, P., Dotinga, R., & Comarow, A. (2004). Fixing kids’ sports. U.S. News & World Report, 136 (20), 44-53]
30. [Sporting Violence: The Parents, Coaches, and Child Exploitati by David Mayeda on July 15, 2008 Bleacher Report,]
31. [Exploitation and Child Protection in Sport, The International Platform on Sport and Development]
[32.] HRF, “Human Rights First Praises Final Passage of Hate Crimes Prevention Legislation,” Press Release, October 8, 2009, http://www.humanrightsfirst.org/2009/10/8/Human-Rights-First-Praises-Final-Passage-of-Hate-Crimes-Prevention-Legislation/
[33.] [COACH PEDOPHILIA AND THE NERUOPATHOLOCIAL BASIS FOR EROTIC DISCRIMINATION OR SEXUAL PREFERENCE http://www.cappaa.com/coach-pediphilia-and-neruolocial-basis-for-erotic-discrimination]

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