Children Are Caught In Multiple Adverse Childhood Experiences Crossfire. All experiences do not affect every child. Some might:
• Single Parent Family
• Drug / Substance Abuse
• Healthcare Disparity
• DACA, Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals
• Public Health Epidemics
• Sanctuary City
• Child Abuse and Neglect
• Children’s Human Rights Violations
• Child Trafficking
• Strained Public Schools from overcrowding and deficiencies in every needs assessment possible
• Government deadlock
•Hunger: According to the United States Department of Agriculture in 2015, 50 million Americans experienced food insecurity in 2009, including 17 million children. This represents nearly 1 in 4 American children. [FAO, WFP and IFAD. 2012. The State of Food Insecurity in the World 2012]
“842 million people suffer from chronic hunger around the world”. [Bloomberg Businessweek. 9 October 2012]
• Poverty: In 2015, 13.5% (43.1 million) of Americans lived in poverty. [“Basic Statistics – Talk Poverty”. October 27, 2016]
• Single Parent Family: Of approximately 12 million single-parent homes in 2015, more than 80% were headed by single mothers. This disproportionate statistic has been well- documented in multiple country contexts all around the world. The United States Census Bureau found that today, one in four children under the age of 18, a total of 17.4 million are being raised without a father at all. Women all around the world have been perpetually socialized to adhere to traditional gender roles that place the majority of responsibility for childcare upon them. [“Household Relationship and Living Arrangements of Children Under 18 Years”. United States Census Bureau. 2015. [Steil, Janice (2001). “Family Forms and Member Well- Being: A Research Agenda for the Decade of Behavior”. Psychology of Women Quarterly. 25 (4): 344–363. doi:10.1111/1471-6402.00034. [Ruppanner, Leah; Pixley, Joy (2012). “Work to Family and Family to Work Spillover: The Implications of Childcare Policy and Maximum Work Hour Legislation”. Journal of Family and Economic Issues. 33 (3): 283–297. doi:10.1007/s10834-012-9303-6 – via proquest. [Pierce, Latoya; Herlihy, Barbara (2013). “The Experience of Wellness for Counselor Education Doctoral Students Who are Mothers in the Southeastern Region of the United States”. Journal of International Women’s Studies. 14 (3): 108–120 – via Proquest.
• Drug / Substance abuse: In 2013, an estimated 24.6 million Americans aged 12 or older—9.4% of the population—had used an illicit drug in the past month. This number is up from 8.3% in 2002. [NIH]
• Healthcare Disparity
Health disparities are preventable differences in the burden of disease, injury, violence, or opportunities to achieve optimal health that are experienced by socially disadvantaged populations.1 Populations can be defined by factors such as race or ethnicity, gender, education or income, disability, geographic location (e.g., rural or urban), or sexual orientation. Health disparities are inequitable and are directly related to the historical and current unequal distribution of social, political, economic, and environmental resources.
Health disparities result from multiple factors, including
• Environmental threats
• Inadequate access to health care
• Individual and behavioral factors
• Educational inequalities [Adolescent and School Health, CDC]
• DACA: Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals was an American immigration policy that allowed some individuals who entered the country as minors, and had either entered or remained in the country illegally, to receive a renewable two-year period of deferred action from deportation and to be eligible for a work permit. As of 2017, approximately 800,000 individuals—referred to as Dreamers after the DREAM Act bill—were enrolled in the program created by DACA. The policy was established by the Obama administration in June 2012 and rescinded by the Trump administration in September 2017. [Duke, Elaine (September 5, 2017). “Memorandum on Rescission Of Deferred Action For Childhood Arrivals (DACA)”. United States Department of Homeland Security]
• “Globalization is another problem for Children and Youth. The flow of information, goods, capital, and people across political and geographic boundaries, has helped spread some of the deadliest infectious diseases known to humans. The spread of diseases across wide geographic scales has increased through history. Early diseases that spread from Asia to Europe were bubonic plague, influenza of various types, and similar infectious diseases.
“In the current era of globalization, the world is more interdependent and open than at any other time. more animal diseases that have subsequently jumped species barriers (see zoonosis), as well has human diseases.
• Public Health Epidemics: “Etiology, the modern branch of science that deals with the causes of infectious disease, recognizes five major modes of disease transmission: airborne, waterborne, bloodborne, by direct contact, and through vector (insects or other creatures that carry germs from one species to another).
A quarantine is used to separate and restrict the movement of people; it is a ‘state of enforced isolation’. This is often used in connection to disease and illness, such as those who may possibly have been exposed to a communicable disease
“Pestilence Houses were for disease control following immigration to Charleston SC. Disease had plagued the population of all major port cities on the coast of the American Colonies due to the sudden introduction of many foreign people and their foreign diseases into the New World.
“Diseases from Europe and Africa were introduced by maritime travel. Without immunity to diseases like malaria, smallpox, tuberculosis, and cholera, an infection could become an epidemic, quickly spreading through the colonial population.
“To limit the spread of such communicable diseases, arriving vessels, passengers, and cargo were inspected before they entered the city. Pestilence houses or “lazaretto” – named for Saint Lazarus the patron saint of lepers – were established to hold the infected passengers for ten to forty days to avoid contamination of the public.
“Charles Towne’s (SC) erected one of the earliest colonial pestilence houses on Sullivan’s Island in 1707. “A total of 4 pestilence houses stood on Sullivan’s Island during the eighteenth century. None survive today and their original locations are undetermined but it is known that they occupied lots between Fort Moultrie and the west end of the island.
Modern day unsanitary empdemic: “Sanitary street washing will commence in downtown San Diego and will continue every other week to combat the city’s deadly hepatitis A outbreak, Mayor Kevin Faulconer’s office said Friday.
“The city responded to a letter sent by San Diego County Thursday, asking the city to move forward with a list of specific sanitation actions designed to help control the spread of the disease, which has killed 15 people and hospitalized nearly 300, many of them homeless and living on streets without adequate access to restrooms or showers.
“The county gave the city five business days to respond with a plan for remedying what it called a “fecally contaminated environment” downtown. The county will soon expand its efforts to other cities in the region, where the outbreak has now produced nearly 400 confirmed cases.
The county moved forward last weekend with its own contractor, who installed 40 hand-washing stations in areas where the homeless often gather.
In addition to regularly pressure-washing dirty city right-of-ways with chlorinated water, the county also asked the city to “immediately expand access to public restrooms and wash stations within the city limits that are adjacent to at-risk populations
“The Los Angeles County outbreak was declared because two of 10 confirmed cases could not be traced back to either San Diego or to Santa Cruz County, some 300 miles (480 kilometers) to the north, where there have been 69 hepatitis A cases since April, the Department of Public Health said.
“Most of those infected in the outbreaks have been homeless or using illicit drugs. Several people who provide services to the homeless have also been infected.
“With many American cities now declaring themselves so-called Sanctuaries for illegal aliens it is time to examine this phenomenon and highlight its costs and predict where it will eventually lead.
“Sanctuary City with regard to illegal immigration is a generic term that is used haphazardly and carelessly by elected officials, usually without input or approval from the citizens, to declare that the city will not support federal law enforcement officers in the enforcement of the nation’s immigration laws.
In some cases it means that the city government will be breaking federal law by assisting illegal aliens to evade apprehension by the feds. And, for the record: The 1996 IIRIRA (Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996) confirms that local police can enforce federal immigration laws and makes it illegal for a mayor or police chief to prevent their officers from contacting immigration officials about a person’s immigration status.”
“In the United States and Canada, a sanctuary city is a city that limits its cooperation with the national government effort to enforce immigration law.
“Leaders of sanctuary cities want to reduce the fear of deportation and possible family break-up among people who are in the country illegally so that such people will be more willing to report crimes, use health and social services, and enroll their children in school.
“Municipal policies include prohibiting police or city employees from questioning people about their immigration status and refusing requests by federal immigration authorities to detain people beyond their release date, if they were jailed for breaking local law.
“No one would want to subject citizens to such a ‘Sanctuary City Experiment’ because the results are so predictably terrible. Officials who promote Sanctuary Cities and that fail to cooperate with the national government and do not enforce immigration law are now sentencing their citizens and constituents with overcrowding, crime and disease.
Sanctuary Cities’ officials essentially quarantine, separate, isolate and restrict the movement of people in a ‘state of enforced illegal immigrant inaccessibility ‘
Rather than separate those with excellent health from those with contagious illnesses and disease, all the healthy and diseased citizens and illegal aliens are comingled in a ‘state of enforced Sanctuary City place for potential epidemics’.
Opponents say, “the pro-mass immigration and illegal alien supporters are trying to turn this issue into a modern civil rights movement but most of what drives the current sanctuary movement is…sanctimony or self-righteousness with an astronomical cost to the community and its citizens as the result of crime, unsustainable school disorder, educational costs, overburdened healthcare and overpopulation.
• Homeless: Los Angeles Homeless Services Coalition Statistics Coalition: 3.5 million people (1.35 million are children) experience homelessness per year. Children under the age of 18 account for 39% of the homeless population. 42% of these are under the age of 5. 43% of the homeless population are women 40% of these women are unaccompanied.
• Child Abuse: “In 2015, an estimated 1,670 children died from Child Abuse and Neglect in the United States.1 In 2015, Children’s Advocacy Centers around the country served more than 311,002 child victims of abuse, providing victim advocacy and support to these children and their families.
“Nearly 700,000 children are abused in the U.S annually. An estimated 683,000 children (unique incidents) were victims of abuse and neglect in 2015, the most recent year for which there is national data.
“Neglect is the most common form of maltreatment.
Human Rights: Philadelphia, PA Mayor, “Historically, America is the place people come to be saved. We have to treat people the way we would have wanted our ancestors to be treated.”
“It’s injustice and oppression, all of which is evil,” Rev Robin Hynicka said. “When a human being’s human rights are denied, when they can’t stay with their family, when they can’t work, when they can’t participate in the community in which they have deep roots, all of those apply.”
“Your right to swing your arm leaves off where my right not to have my nose struck begins.”
‘A human right to illegally immigrate into the United States with an extremely contagious decease like Ebola Virus or any other epidemic and/or pestilence disease and be protected by a sanctuary city and state, leaves off where others have the right not to have Ebola and those other epidemic and/or pestilence disease begins.’
Tocqueville said, ” The liberty of one citizen ends where the liberty of another citizen begins,’ it summed up in a simple axiom the whole law of human society.”
“Human rights recognize the dignity inherent in every person as a human being, regardless of his or her particular age, nationality, race, ethnicity, religion, gender, sexuality, class or any other group affiliation or characteristic. As a result, they assert the moral and legal importance of the individual over other entities that have “rights,” such as the family and the state.”
Everyone has the right
•to freedom of conscience and of religion
•freedom of thought and expression of peaceful assembly, without arms, associate freely for ideological, religious, political, economic, labor, social, cultural, sports, or other purposes.
•The exercise of the right provided for in the foregoing paragraph shall not be subject to prior censorship but shall be subject to subsequent imposition of liability, which shall be expressly established by law to the extent necessary to ensure:
a. respect for the rights or reputations of others; or
b. the protection of national security, public order, or public health or morals.
•Every person lawfully in the territory of a State Party has the right to move about in it, and to reside in it subject to the provisions of the law.
•Every person has the right lo leave any country freely, including his own
•Every person has responsibilities to his family, his community, and mankind.
•The exercise of the foregoing rights may be restricted only pursuant to a law to the extent necessary in a democratic society to prevent crime or to protect national security, public safety, public order, public morals, public health, or the rights or freedoms of others.
“Child trafficking is another Conflict. Victims, whether for labor, sex or organ trafficking, come from all backgrounds, include both boys and girls. They span a wide age range from 1 to 18 years old. Sex trafficking victims up to roughly 25 years old most often started as young as 14. Children are trafficked out of, or into the United States from all regions of the world and represent a variety of different races, ethnic groups and religions. They may be brought to the U.S. legally or smuggled in.
Child trafficking victims:
•Gender and age profile of victims detected globally: 59% Women – 14% Men – 17% Girls and 10% were Boys.
•600,000 to 800,000 women, children and men bought and sold across international borders every year and exploited for forced labor or commercial sex
Strained Public Schools: “Public school districts across the United States are suffering under a massive unfunded mandate imposed by the federal government: the requirement to educate millions of illegal aliens, the school age children of illegal aliens, refugees and legal immigrant students.
“FAIR estimates that it currently costs public schools $59.8 billion to serve this burgeoning population. The struggle to fund programs for students with Limited English Proficiency (LEP), sometimes called English Language Learners (ELL), represents a major drain on school budgets. Yet due to political correctness, it is taboo to raise the issue even though scarce resources are redirected away from American citizens to support programs like English for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL) and English as a Second Language (ESL).
“Almost one in every ten students enrolled in public schools is designated as LEP. For kindergartners, the figure is 17.4 percent. In 2013, the Department of Education determined that the United States will require 82,408 new or trained LEP teachers by 2018—if school districts can find enough qualified candidates. Despite the growing LEP population, only 10 percent of teachers are currently certified or trained in ESL.
“Factors Straining Public Schools
•A surge of Unaccompanied Alien Minors crossing the border from Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras and El Salvador beginning in 2014
•Family units entering the country illegally
•People overstaying their visas
•Higher-than-average birthrates among families with an illegal head-of-household
•Around a million legal immigrants granted permanent resident status every year since 2004
“In addition, the spread of “sanctuary” policies across the country—cities, counties and two states (California and Connecticut) that refuse to cooperate with federal immigration agencies—also serves as a magnet for illegal aliens. Almost every school district highlighted in this report operates in an active sanctuary jurisdiction.2
“The federal government provides approximately 8 percent of public school funding. The rest comes from state and local resources split roughly down the middle. Regarding LEP programs, however, Congress contributes just over 1 percent of the cost. With school budgets shrinking across the country since 2008, it will become harder to absorb all the refugees and new immigrants who require LEP services without impacting other students. This year in Chicago, for example, the school system is preparing for “historic” budget cuts exceeding 20 percent that will require laying off teachers, trimming resources and increasing class sizes. In 2016, the average property tax bill in the city mushroomed by 13 percent over the previous year, but some residents of affluent neighborhoods saw their taxes increase as much as 90 percent.
“The unfortunate truth is that the pain is not over,” said a local attorney who specializes in real estate taxation. “It is just the beginning.” Chicago and many other municipalities in Illinois tout their status as sanctuary districts, yet by 2018 the state will have to almost triple its current LEP outlay and spend $1.9 billion every year to educate 186,646 English language students.3
“Across the country, public schools are grappling with budget shortages and lagging achievement. And, as UAMs and families continue to stream across the southern border, the Obama administration is exacerbating the situation by flying in UAMs from Central America to reunite with family members and shepherding refugees to our shores.29
“By any measure, taxpayers are paying more for LEP programs and getting less from their investment. As one student protesting the Oklahoma City school budget cuts put it, “our generation is the future . . . and if children [aren’t] learning to read and write because their classes are overcrowded and there’s not enough teachers, our generation from here on out will become nothing but illiterate and ignorant.”30
“As standards drop and student achievement declines across the country, LEP programs are draining resources for all students. Yet educators and politicians, who use political correctness and name-calling to avoid debating the issue’s merits, display a shameful lack of accountability. Only by changing course can the nation avoid a bleak future, but the time to act is now.
Our U.S. Federal Govenrment is deadlocked, while preferring to serve their political parties, rather than serve our citizens and their consitutents. “Children’s lives are underpinned by an incoherent hotchpotch of legal principles and government policies.” 1. “Children are one third of our population and all of our future.” 2. If we Save Our Children, we will invest-in and save our future. 1.
Children and Youth can help themselves and dodge the crossfire. Concerned adults, including parents, guardians and witnesses can aid the dodge of crossfire. Sports, Recreation and Exercise (SRE) are fabulous opportunities to avoid the multitude of problems Children (age <18) and Youth (age 15-24) encounter growing-up. When Child and Youth join a team, not a gang and follow the ‘Athlete Golden Tools’, phenomena will ensue:
• When Athletes stick together
+ stay in tip-top readiness and performance shape 365 days per year
+ don’t dope
+ are dedicated to their sports
+ are dedicated to their education
• the positive benefits from those ‘Golden Tools’
• will make huge differences in Child and Youth Athletes lives
• enhance Child and Youth Athletes Athletes’ educational success
• and sustain Athletes’ personal and professional lives
There are many Positive Outcomes from Sprots Participation. “Mahoney suggested that participation in voluntary, school-based, extracurricular activities increases school participation and achievement because it facilitates:
(a) the acquisition of interpersonal skills and positive social norms
(b) membership in prosocial peer groups
(c) stronger emotional and social connections to one’s school.
“In turn, these assets should increase mental health, school engagement, school achievement, and long-term educational outcomes and should decrease participation in problem behaviors, provided that problem behaviors are not endorsed by the peer cultures that emerge in these activities.”
“Participation in extracurricular and service learning activities has also been linked to increases in interpersonal competence, self-concept, high school grade point average (GPA), school engagement, and educational aspirations”, as well as to higher educational achievement, better job quality, more active participation in the political process and other types of volunteer activities, continued sport engagement, and better mental health during young adulthood
Sports participation has been linked to lower likelihood of school dropout and higher rates of college attendance, particularly for low achieving and blue-collar male athletes.
“These studies provide good evidence that participating in extracurricular activities is associated with both short and long term indicators of positive development including school achievement and educational attainment. Some of these relations hold even after the other obvious predictors of such outcomes are controlled–giving us some confidence that these effects do not just reflect the selection factors that lead to participation in the first place
“How young people spend their time outside of school has consequences for their development.” Organized extracurricular activities, after-school programs, and youth organization have significantly escalated. Research reveals positive outcomes “of participation for academic, educational, social, civic, and physical development”.
“Combining this with the potential for safety and supervision provided by organized activities while parents are working has increased local, state, and Federal authorities to increase these opportunities.
“The well-being of youth who do not participate in organized activities is reliably less positive compared to youth who do participate.”
[Mayor Jim Kenney talks sanctuary cities on ’60 Minutes’ by Brian Hickey, Philly Voice, May 23, 2017]
[John B. Finch who was the Chairman of the Prohibition National Committee for several years in the 1880s and died in 1887] ‘
[Alexis Charles Henri Clérel, Viscount de Tocqueville 1805 –1859,
[French Revolutionary Convention, French diplomat, political scientist, and historian; best known for Democracy in America (2 volumes: 1835 and 1840) and The Old Regime and the Revolution (1856)]
[laCommunarde, 2 years ago]
[Globalization 101, 2017 The Levin Institute Dr. Susan Aaronson on Trade and Human Rights]
[MULTILATERAL TREATY, AMERICAN CONVENTION ON HUMAN RIGHTS “PACT OF SAN JOSE, COSTA RICA” (B-32)]
[Child Trafficking Statistics Ark Of Hope For Children, 30 July 2017}
[National Children’s Alliance] “
[1. Daulaire, N. (July 12, 1999). “Globalization and Health”. International RoundtabResponses to Globalization: Rethinking Equity and Health’ jointly organized by the Society for International Development (SID), the World Health Organization (WHO), and The Rockefeller Foundation (RF)]
[1.] Merriam Webster definition | [2.] Centers for Disease Control and Prevention]
[Pestilence Houses: Immigration in Charleston, FORT SUMTR, SC, NATIONAL MONUMENT, CONTACT THE PARK Mailing Address: 1214 Middle Street Sullivan’s Island, SC 29482 Phone: (843) 883-3123 Last updated: April 14, 2015]
[Gussow, Z. (1989), Leprosy, Racism, and Public Health: Social Policy in Chronic Disease Control. Boulder: Westview Press, 44] [(2008). Leprosy (Hansen’s Disease). Louisiana Office of Public Health – Infectious Disease Epidemiology Section – Annual Report, 1.]
[After 15 die in hepatitis outbreak, San Diego begins sanitary street washing In an effort to combat a deadly hepatitis A outbreak, San Diego will begin washing streets in downtown. (Sept. 11, 2017) Paul Sisson LA Times]
[Hepatitis A outbreak seen in Los Angeles County BY JOHN ANTCZAK, ASSOCIATED PRESS Sep 19, 2017]
[THE COST OF SANCTUARY CITIES By Rick Oltman, Senior Writing Fellow Californians for Population Stabilization (CAPS) is a nonpartisan, nonprofit membership organization that relies solely on donations. CAPS works to formulate and advance policies and programs designed to stabilize the population of California, the U.S. and the world at levels which will preserve the environment and a good quality of life for all.]
[Duke, Elaine (September 5, 2017). “Memorandum on Rescission Of Deferred Action For Childhood Arrivals (DACA)”. United States Department of Homeland Security]
[definitions from 2009 Medical Subject Headings (MeSH)]
[Federation for American Immigration Reform 2017]
1. [Children’s Rights and the Developing Law, by Jane Fortin – Law – 2009 – 804 pages]
2. [Select Panel for the Promotion of Child Health, 1981]
[Mahoney et al]
[Elder & Conger, 2000; Marsh & Kleitman, 2002; Youniss, McLellan, & Yates, 1999], as well as to higher educational achievement, better job quality, more active participation in the political process and other types of volunteer activities, continued sport engagement, and better mental health during young adulthood
[Barber, Eccles, & Stone, 2001; Glancy, Willits, & Farrell, 1986; Marsh, 1992; Youniss, McLellan, Su, & Yates, 1999] Sports participation has been linked to lower likelihood of school dropout and higher rates of college attendance, particularly for low achieving and blue-collar male athletes (Gould & Weiss, 1987; Marsh & Kleitman, 2003; McNeal, 1995). ”
[Extracurricular activities and adolescent development. Journal of Social Issues, December 22, 2003, Eccles, Jacquelynne S.; Barber, Bonnie L.; Stone, Margaret; Hunt, James]
[Positive Outcomes from Sprots Participation]
[Organized Activity Participation, Positive Youth Development, and the Over-Scheduling Hypothesis, Joseph L. Mahoney, Angel L. Harris, and Jacquelynne S. Eccles, Volume XX, Number IV, Social Policy Report, 2006]