NERUOPATHOLOCIAL BASIS FOR COACH PEDOPHILIA, AN ABNORMAL SEXUAL PREFERENCE

January 6, 2012 by admin 

“Sexual health is a state of physical, emotional, mental and social well-being in relation to sexuality; it is not merely the absence of disease, dysfunction or infirmity.”

“Sexual health requires a positive and respectful approach to sexuality and sexual relationships, as well as the possibility of having pleasurable and safe sexual experiences, free of Coercion, Discrimination and Violence.”

“For sexual health to be attained and maintained, the Sexual Rights of all persons must be respected, protected and fulfilled.”

Sexual Rights embrace human rights that are already recognized in national laws, international human rights documents and other consensus statements. They include the right of all persons, free of coercion, discrimination and violence, to:

• the highest attainable standard of sexual health, including access to sexual and reproductive health care services;
• seek, receive and impart information related to sexuality;
• sexuality education;
• respect for bodily integrity;
• choose their partner;
• decide to be sexually active or not;
• consensual sexual relations;
• consensual marriage;
• decide whether or not, and when, to have children; and
• pursue a satisfying, safe and pleasurable sexual life.

The responsible exercise of Human Rights requires that all persons respect the rights of others. [35.]

“The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) is an international treaty that legally obliges states to protect children’s rights. Articles 34 and 35 of the CRC require states to protect children from all forms of sexual exploitation and sexual abuse.”

“This includes outlawing the coercion of a child to perform sexual activity, the prostitution of children, and the exploitation of children in creating pornography. States are also required to prevent the abduction, sale, or trafficking of children.” [36.]

“Paraphilia (in Greek para παρά = beside and -philia φιλία = friendship, meaning love) is a biomedical term used to describe sexual arousal to objects, situations, or individuals that are not part of normative stimulation and that may cause distress or serious problems for the paraphiliac or persons associated with him or her. A paraphilia involves sexual arousal and gratification towards sexual behavior that is atypical or extreme. [4.]

Before the introduction of the term paraphilia in the DSM-III (1980), the term sexual deviation was used to refer to paraphilias in the first two editions of the manual American Journal of Psychiatry describes paraphilia as “recurrent, intense sexually arousing fantasies, sexual urges, or behaviors generally involving:

1. Non-human objects
2. The suffering or humiliation of oneself or one’s partner
3. Children
4. Non-consenting persons [5.]

Erotic is defined as tending to arouse sexual love or desire, strongly marked, sexually driven and affected by sexual desire the condition of being sexually stimulated. [1.]

The Usual, Customary type of Discrimination refered to is defined by the following:

• Non-Erotic
• Self-Gratification-Against, Dislike-for a person or group
• Negative attitudes and prejudice to another based on socio-cultural choices
• Preconceived judgment and opinion of another
• Action of irrational attitude of hostility toward another
• Disregard another’s Human Rights
• Objective: Hate, Victem Harassment and Destruction
• Directed against an individual or a group because of their differences from the others, usually race, religion, ethnicity, age, sexual orientation, language, disabililty. [1.]

Pedophiliac Sexual Discrimination or Erotic Preference is a Pathological Disorder. The Sexual Rights of Child Victims, when they are victimized, have been disrespected, unprotected, and unlawfully destroyed.

Sexual Rights are recognized in national and international Human Rights and Laws. Child Victims are coerced, targeted (discrimination, Bias) and violated. Pedophiliac Sexual Preference is Characterized by Abnormal Pedophilic Behaviors and Dangerous Paraphiliac Children Effects:

• Sexual arousal and stimulation elicited by contact with Children who are not normal groups of persons like adults that should elicit healthy arousal and stimulation
• Pedophiliac sexual actions likewise initiate physical danger and/or emotional distress and other serious consequences for the Paraphiliac Victimized Children who become associated with the Pedophiles
• Pedophiliac sexual actions are not conscious choices but Pathological Responses to sensory stimuli from Children, primarily visual
• Pedohiliac sexual actions with Children are always Criminal Actions in the U.S.

“The paraphilias are bizarre and disturbing phenomena of abnormal human sexual preference. How is it that a small fraction of human beings, and most often men, can have eroto-sexual preferences for objects (such as shoes), or parts of the human body (such as the hair or feet), for inappropriate partners (such as animals or children), or for behavioral traits (such as sadism or lust-murder)?”

“However, those human beings afflicted with paraphilias show deep seated and bizarre eroto-sexual preferences, which indicate that something has gone profoundly astray during their childhood or perhaps during adolescence, to inappropriately condition sexual arousal.”

God and His Laws of Nature put sexual “drive into human beings for a very important reason, the preservation of the human race. If a person stops eating, he will die. If we all stopped having sex, the human race would die.”

Behaviors enacted in response to powerful biological appetites, be it for food or for sex, can become associated with some degree of volitional impairment.

Calling a condition a disorder always involves a bad outcome. Pedophilia is considered a disorder because of its bad consequences and permanent damage to Children and Youth..

“Men with pedophilia get erections when fantasizing about children. Heterosexual men get erections when fantasizing about women. In neither case is that so because the individual in question has somehow decided ahead of time to program his mind to work in such a fashion.”

Persons with Pedophilia have simply not chosen toexperience an alternative state of mind. [29.]

“But a disorder it most assuredly is. This is bizarre and abnormal disorder of sexuality. It cannot be truly “consensual,” as in the case of sexual activity involving adults. The child is always at risk of being manipulated or disadvantaged by an adult in such relationships.”

A master manipulator, “a pedophile can inappropriately interact with an unsuspecting child and set up an agenda for intimacy.” [22.] [23.]

“As a medical diagnosis, pedophilia (or paedophilia) is defined as a psychiatric disorder in adults or late adolescents (persons age 16 or older) typically characterized by a primary or exclusive sexual interest in prepubescent children (generally age 13 years or younger, though onset of puberty may vary). The child must be at least five years younger in the case of adolescent pedophiles (16 or older) to be termed pedophilia.
International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems”

The International Classification of Disease Code for Pedophilia 2012 ICD-9-CM Diagnosis Code is - 302.2, The code 302.2 is a billable medical code that can be used to specify a diagnosis on a reimbursement claim. It will convert to ICD-10-CM
[24.][25.][26.][27.]

Paraphilia and Pedophilia are not socio-cultural choices. There are Neuropathological bases for these disorders. Pedophilia is not a conscious choice. There are underlying Central Nervous System Pathological Abnormalities. Pedophilia can be heterosexual, homosexual, bisexual, transexual etc.

The Pedophiles Erotic Discriminations or Deviant Sexual Preferences for Child Victems, including Child and Youth Athletes, are not socio-cultural choices and don’t follow the usual defintion of Discrimination. They are Central Nervous System Pathological Based Abnormalities.

Pedophiles may engage in a wide range of sexual acts with children. When confronted about engaging in such activities, pedophiles commonly justify and minimize their actions by stating that the acts “had educational value,” that the child derived pleasure from the acts or attention, or that the child was provocative and encouraged the acts in some way.[9.]

A U.S. Department of Justice manual for law enforcement officers identifies 5 common psychological defense patterns in pedophiles:[10.]

• Denial (e.g., “Is it wrong to give a child a hug?”)
• Minimization (e.g., “It only happened once.”)
• Justification (e.g., “I am a boy lover, not a child molester.”)
• Fabrication (activities were research for a scholarly project), and
• Attack (character attacks on child, prosecutors, or police, as well as potential for physical violence).

Child molestation is not a medical diagnosis and is not necessarily a term synonymous with pedophilia.[11.] A child molester is loosely defined as any individual who touches a child to obtain sexual gratification with the specifier that the offender is at least 4 to 5 years older than the child. The age qualifier is added to eliminate developmentally normal childhood sex play (e.g., two 8-year-olds “playing doctor”).[12.] [15.]

Coach Pedophilia Sex with Child and Youth Athletes is about the powerful over the powerless, because of the Power Gap between the Coach and Child Athlete.

“Pedophiles use varying degrees of persuasion, coercion, and physical force in their sexual assaults. Pedophiles may also display aggressiveness and characteristics of hostility in nonsexual areas of their behavior.” [16.] Their encounters might mingle violence with erotic desire.

Consent implies that the individual is of legal age. The age of consent or legal age varies from one jurisdiction to the next. Usually the age of consent is 18.

Pedophiles argue there is no “force” or “coercive” actions that pressure the child into the sexual acts. The Pedophile equates the lack of force and coercion as consent on the part of the Child.”

“What the Pedophile is actually referring to is that the sexual act was “mutual”. All mutual sexual acts with children are illegal because the Child is not legally allowed to consent to sex/ Because of the minor age of the Child, the sex acts with adults are extremely physically and psychologically harmful to the Child. [28.]

The Problematic Pediphilic Coach has a complex Neuropathological basis for his/her disorder. There are “wires crossed”, so to speak, in their Central Nevrous System.

“Study findings supported increased prevalence of Childhood Sexual Abuse along with elevated propensity towards cognitive distortions and psychopathy in individuals with pedophilia vs. healthy controls.

Individuals with pedophilia had higher rates of Childhood Sexual Abuse, more schizoid traits, and lower impulsivity and behavioral psychopathy scores.

On phallometry, individuals with pedophilia showed higher erectile response overall but evidence of erotic discrimination, with clear preference for pedophilic rather than adult female stimuli.

Penile tumescence is the vacular reaction within the penis after arousal causing erection. The largest reactions for normal individuals were elicited by the physically mature adult female.” [8.]

“Individuals with pedophilia showed elevations both in traits related to aberrant motivation and to impaired inhibition.

Heterogeneity among these traits may reflect the degree to which pedophilic urges and behavior pertain to either aberrant motivation or impaired inhibition.” [2.]

“A psychobiological model of pedophilia is proposed that conditions lead to neurodevelopmental abnormalities in the temporal regions mediating sexual arousal and erotic discrimination and the frontal regions mediating the cognitive aspects of sexual desire and behavioral inhibition.

In this way, pedophiles develop deviant pedophilic arousal. Subsequently, if there is comorbid personality pathology, specifically sociopathy and cognitive distortions, there will be failure to inhibit pedophilic behavior.” [3.]

“Research that seeks Neuropsychiatric Differences between pedophiles and the general population, the prison population, and other sexual offenders has been undertaken.

Neuropsychiatric differences of the Pedophile:

• Lower IQ (though this is controversial)
• Prominence of left-handedness
• Impaired cognitive abilities
• Neuroendocrine differences
• Brain abnormalities
• Possible neurochemical differnces, especially in serotonin levels
• Other psychiatric disorders [7.]

“Most child molesters are true pedophiles, that is, they prefer sex with children over sex with adults. Most of them don’t like sex with adults at all, or at least not much.
Pedophilia is a problem of desire.”

Sexual Sadism is a PARAPHILIA in which sexual gratification is derived from hurting, humiliating, or otherwise inflicting physical or psychological suffering on another. [34.]

“Sexual sadism refers to the derivation of sexual pleasure from the infliction of pain, suffering and/or humiliation upon another person. The pain and suffering of the victim, which may be both physical and psychological, is pivotal to the sexual arousal and pleasure. The ICD-10 (World Health Organization, 1992) defines sadism as “preference for sexual activity that involves bondage or infliction of pain or humiliation.”

ICD-9 (International Classification of Disease) for Sexual Sadism code - 302.84

The Preferential Pedophile has two subtypes:

1. “The Seductive Pedophile is also known as the fixated type. They are usually homosexual men that prefer male victims. Their seduction process involves buying the future victim gifts or helping them with various things. They became a friend the victim can lean on. As the bond grows sexual innuendo is slowly brought in to the relationship. The may show them pornographic pictures or videos. The aim to confuse their victim about sex and then once the abuse begins they blame the victim. They often have friends that are also pedophiles and they network. This network uses the Internet to find victims and search for pornography. They have a list of potential victims and they know where to find them.

2. “The Sadistic Pedophile is grotesque when it comes to sexual preferences. They severely abuse their victims and sometimes kill them. They search for the perfect victim and they will travel long distances to gain access to the victim. They stalk and then attack and/or abduct their victim. Their abductions are typically designed to confuse the parents and the authorities. This type of pedophile is usually intelligent and middle to upper class. They like to be on the move and they like change. [33.]

“Pedophiles, child molesters, sexual offenders…all these names apply to those that stalk and molest our children. They are dangerous and often invisible to us.

NEUROPATHOLOGY AND NEUROBIOCHEMICAL CHANGES IN PEDOPHILA

“A high comorbidity of impulse control disorders (eg, explosive personality disorder, kleptomania, pyromania, pathological gambling) has been noted in pedophiles (30%-55%).7 These factors have been postulated to indicate that pedophiles may have Neurodevelopmental Distresses.”

A study by Schiffer et al, found decreased gray matter volume bilaterally in the ventral striatum, insula, orbitofrontal cortex, and cerebellum of the pedophiles. the existence of disrupted neurophysiologic attributes.

“The temporal lobe findings deserve special attention. It has long been known that certain medical conditions, such as temporal lobe epilepsy and Kluver-Bucy syndrome (bilateral lesions in the temporal lobes), can lead to hypersexual or hyposexual behavior.23 Several studies indicate that the temporal lobe is involved in erotic discrimination and arousal thresholds.

“As previously mentioned, these changes commonly occur with other conditions, such as certain personality disorders, which are also found in a large number of pedophiles.

“A question this raises is whether some of the changes noted in pedophiles are related to problems of brain development and maturation or represent brain changes that have resulted from life experiences, such as being physically abused and sexual victimized themselves as children.

Studies of neurochemical differences in pedophiles vs controls have also been performed. A particular area of interest is serotonin function and metabolism.

“Serotonin has long been known to play a role in impulse control disorders such as OCD and is theorized to have significance in the paraphilias. Pedophiles had a serotonergic disturbance, most likely caused by the decreased activity of the presynaptic serotonergic neuron and hypersensitivity of the serotonin 2 postsynaptic receptor.

“A study by Blanchard et al found the mean intelligence rating of bisexual and homosexual pedophiles was significantly lower than heterosexual offenders (either pedophile or teleiophile). The study by Blanchard et al10 also indicated that the lower the intelligence of the offender, the younger the age of the abused child.

“Another study by Blanchard et al11 the hypothesis that neurodevelopmental differences or injuries in early childhood may result in one being sexually oriented toward children.

Environmental factors may predispose individuals to become pedophiles. Pedophiles often report environmental stress as a factor that increases their urges or desire to offend against children.

“One of the most obvious examples of an environmental factor that increases the chances of an individual becoming an offender is if he or she were sexually abused as a child. Studies that examined females who committed sexual acts against children reported that 47% to 100% of them had experienced sexual assault as children.

“Individuals who engage in homosexual pedophilia were more likely to have been abused than individuals who engage in heterosexual pedophilia.

Of note, although abused individuals are more likely to abuse others, most individuals who are abused do not perpetuate the cycle.” [7.]

“We have, above all, the studies of the American social psychologist and social harmony researcher James W. Prescott, who garnered public attention by elucidating the connections between child-rearing, sexual behavior, and violence-potential in various world cultures.

“The quintessence of these studies is the thesis that certain cultures go a long way towards raising children in a love-starved, tactilely-nourishing-deprived environment and moral code in which pre-marital sexuality is prohibited, an environment in which they are drowning in chaos and violence. That is because violence, as Prescott established scientifically, originates from a compensation reaction on the part of the mind to a lack of (tactile) pleasure”. [17.]

“T.W. Campbell who, synthesizing forty years of neurological research, has concluded that the impetus for every kind of human act of human aspiration is pleasure. If we now prevent the attainment of such pleasure, the human mind compensates for this lack by stimulating the brain’s violence center. Neurologically speaking, the pleasure and violence centers are regarded as being in a zero-sum stasis. The more the pleasure-center is activated, the less active is the violence-center, and vice versa.” [18.]

“One is able to say that love and violence are mutually exclusive from Prescott’s sutdies of tactile-nourishing deprivations in childhood. The more lovingly, affectionately and tactilely nourishing someone is raised up, the more physical joy he or she has already experienced as a child, the less violent he or she will be in later life. 17.]

But “Sex Actions” are not always love. Thus violence is not mutually exclusive during all “Sex Actions”. “Going all the way” is is not love but casual “Sex Action” and can be acompanied by violence..

“Precious love is quite another thing. It is experienced when two people are totally committed to each other and have the security of marriage. Devout Belivers believe “Sex Actions” and God’s way are best. [19.]

“A study published in the Feb. 9 issue of Nature indicates that sex and violence are intertwined in the male brain. Deep within the brain of expermental mice is a circuit of cells that determine whether they fight or mate. Neuroscientists believe that human brains are wired similarly.”

“Dr. Clifford Saper of Harvard Medical School points out that sex and violence are inseparably linked in a chain that leads to the survival of a species. Fighting off invading males preserves territory and sex with females passes on genetic line.

Even in humans, stimulation of the VMH is known to produce aggressive behavior. Dr. Newton Canteras of the University of São Paulo in Brazil believes further study will reveal that sexual behavior is centered in the same area of the human hypothalamus. Such knowledge may also help scientists understand and treat violent sex criminals [21.]

Abnormal Coaching Pedophile Behaviors are the Pedophiles Erotic Discriminations or Deviant Sexual Preferences for romantic encounters with Child and Youth Athlete victems. These Acts do not follow the usual, customary defintion of Discrimination and Bias. They are Central Nervous System Pathological Based Abnormalities.

Coach Neuropahological Pedophile Behaviors are deeply centered within the brain of the central nervoux system where the region for subconscious, instinctive Sexual Drive, Self Defense and species Survival are centered. The Center when altered pathologically manifests itself with Pedophillic Sexual Self-Gratification and Sadistic Child Athlete Victimization and Destruction

Study: “To examine whether pedophilic perpetrators show structural neuronal deficits in brain regions that are critical for sexual behavior and how these deficits relate to criminological characteristics.”

“Pedophilic crime causes considerable public concern, but no causative factor of pedophilia has yet been pinpointed. In the past, etiological theories postulated a major impact of the environment, but recent studies increasingly emphasize the role of neurobiological factors, as well. However, the role of alterations in brain structures that are crucial in the development of sexual behavior has not yet been systematically studied in pedophilic subjects.”

“Pedophilic perpetrators showed a significant decrease of right amygdalar volume, compared with healthy controls (P = .001). We observed reduced gray matter in the right amygdala, hypothalamus (bilaterally), septal regions, substantia innominata, and bed nucleus of the striae terminalis. In 8 of the 15 perpetrators, enlargement of the anterior temporal horn of the right lateral ventricle that adjoins the amygdala could be recognized by routine qualitative clinical assessment. Smaller right amygdalar volumes were correlated with the propensity to commit uniform pedophilic sexual offenses exclusively (P = .006) but not with age (P = .89).”

“Pedophilic perpetrators show structural impairments of brain regions critical for sexual development. These impairments are not related to age, and their extent predicts how focused the scope of sexual offenses is on uniform pedophilic activity. Subtle defects of the right amygdala and closely related structures might be implicated in the pathogenesis of pedophilia and might possibly reflect developmental disturbances or environmental insults at critical periods.” [30.]

“Compared to the homosexual and heterosexual control subjects, pedophiles showed decreased gray matter volume in the ventral striatum (also extending into the nucl. accumbens), the orbitofrontal cortex and the cerebellum. These observations further indicate an association between frontostriatal morphometric abnormalities and pedophilia. In this respect these findings may support the hypothesis that there is a shared etiopathological mechanism in all obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders.” [31.]

“A Case Report Study and Report revealed that Orbitofrontal abnormalities are associated with poor impulse control, altered sexual behavior, and sociopathy.”

“A patient with acquired pedophilia and a right orbitofrontal tumor who was unable to inhibit sexual urges despite preserved moral knowledge.”

“The patient displayed impulsive sexual behavior with pedophilia, marked constructional apraxia, and agraphia. The behavioral symptoms and constructional deficits, including agraphia, resolved following tumor resection.”

“For patients with acquired sociopathy and paraphilia, an orbitofrontal localization requires consideration. This case further illustrates that constructional apraxia can arise from right prefrontal lobe dysfunction. Agraphia may represent a manifestation of constructional apraxia in the absence of aphasia and ideomotor apraxia.” [32.]

A growing body of research points to a possible prenatal neurodevelopmental correlation. A 2008 study determined that males with a pronounced degree of fetish interest had findings that would indicate excessive prenatal estrogen exposure and suggestions that disturbed hemispheric brain lateralization may play a role in deviant attractions [6.]

“Pedophilia is a complex, often compulsive, psychosexual disorder with profound implications for the abused child, the perpetrator, and community. It is important for physicians to understand the various types of Pedophiles, the profile of the abused children, and the offenders’ responses to treatment and their risk for repeated offense.” [7.]

Coach and all Pedophiles intensely desire, give sexual preference and select romantically Children for their sexual targets. Pedophilia is a form of Sexual Preference Discrimination. The Pedophile’s objective is Sexual Self-Gratification which is a subconscious, instinctive Sexual Drive.

The despicable damaging consequences to Children are Sadistic Child Victimization, Psychological Destruction. and, potentially. Physical Devastation and Spiritual Annihilation. Pedophilia is the worst of the worst “Sex Crimes” even when the target is not murdered after these atrocious sexual actions. They paralyze the Child Victim, Perpetrator and community

“A nation…cannot survive treason from within…the traitor …wears the face of his victims,…and he appeals to the baseness that lies deep in the hearts of all men. He rots the soul of a nation—he works secretly…he infects the body politic so that it can no longer resist. A murderer is less to be feared…….” Cicero, 42 B.C.E. [20.]

1. [Meriam Webster Dictionary]
2. [Identifying the Psychobiological Correlates of Pedophilic Desire and Behavior: How Can We Generalize Our Knowledge Beyond Forensic Samples? Lisa J. Cohen, Ph.D. and Igor I. Galynker, M.D., Ph.D,.Beth Israel Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New York, NY]
3. [Heterosexual male perpetrators of childhood sexual abuse: a preliminary neuropsychiatric model. Cohen LJ, Nikiforov K, Gans S, Poznansky O, McGeoch P, Weaver C, King EG, Cullen K, Galynker I. Psychiatr Q. 2002 Winter;73(4):313-36.]
4. [Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 1994.][Wikipedia]
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7. [A Profile of Pedophilia: Definition, Characteristics of Offenders, Recidivism, Treatment Outcomes, and Forensic Issues, Ryan C. W. Hall, MD and Richard C. W. Hall, MD, PA , Mayo Clinic Proceedings April 2007 vol. 82 no. 4 457-471]
8. [Erotic Preference, Gender Identity and Aggression in Men, Ron Langeven ed.]
[9.] Child Sexual Exploitation Update, 2004; 1(no. 3). Available at www.ndaa.org
[10.] Lanning, K.V., Child Molesters: A Behavioral Analysis. 4th ed. Alexandria, VA: National Center for Missing & Exploited Children; 2001
[11.] Murray, J.B., “Psychological profile of pedophiles and child molesters,” Journal of Psychology. 2000; 134:211-224
[12.] Abel, G.G., Becker, J.V., Cunningham-Rathner, J., Mittelman, M., Rouleau, J.L., “Multiple paraphilic diagnoses among sex offenders. Bulletin of the American Academy of Psychiatry & The Law. 1988; 16: 153-168.
[13.] Justice Research and Statistic Association http://www.jrsa.org/ibrrc/background-status/nibrs_states.shtml
[14.] Abel, G.G., Harlow, N., “The Abel and Harlow child molestation prevention study,” Excerpted from The Stop Child Molestation Book, Philadelphia, PA: Xlibris; 2001]
15. [mental health and beyond by E. Diane Champe, We Are Adult Survivors of Child Abuse and Neglect Pedophilia Versus Child Molestation – Part 2 July 11, 2011]
16. [.Are pedophiles with aggressive tendencies more sexually violent? Greenberg DM, Bradford JM, Curry S, Bull Am Acad Psychiatry Law. 1996;24(2):225-35. PubMed]
17. [James W. Prescott, "Body Pleasure and the Origins of Violence." Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, 10-20 (1975), in part also published in The Futurist, April 1975.]
18. [T.W. Campbell, The Pleasure Areas, London: Eyre Methuen Ltd., 1973.]
19. [Youth World Lesson 4: Understanding the Sex Jonathan David]
20. [Vatic Master, The Vatic Project,11/19/2011]
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23. [Archives of Sexual Behavior, Vol. 31, No. 6, December 2002, pp. 479–503 (°C 2002) Peer Commentaries on Green (2002) and Schmidt (2002) Pedophilia: When Is a Difference a Disorder? Fred S. Berlin, M.D., Ph.D., National Institute for the Study, Prevention and Treatment of Sexual Trauma, 104 E. Biddle St., Baltimore, Maryland 21202]
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29. [Archives of Sexual Behavior, Vol. 31, No. 6, December 2002, pp. 479–503 (°C 2002) Peer Commentaries on Green (2002) and Schmidt (2002) Pedophilia: When Is a Difference a Disorder? Fred S. Berlin, M.D., Ph.D., National Institute for the
Study, Prevention and Treatment of Sexual Trauma, 104 E. Biddle St., Baltimore, Maryland 21202]
30. [Brain pathology in pedophilic offenders: evidence of volume reduction in the right amygdala and related diencephalic structures., Schiltz K, Witzel J, Northoff G, Zierhut K, Gubka U, Fellmann H, Kaufmann J, Tempelmann C, Wiebking C, Bogerts B., Department of Psychiatry, Otto von Guericke University, Magdeburg, Saxony-Anhalt 39120, Germany]
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32. [Right orbitofrontal tumor with pedophilia symptom and constructional apraxia sign. Burns JM, Swerdlow RH., Department of Neurology, University of Virginia Health System, 1 Hospital Dr, Charlottesville, VA 22908, USA. Arch Neurol. 2003 Mar;60(3):437-40]
33. [Pedophiles and their characteristics, Child Safe Tips]
34. Miller-Keane Encyclopedia and Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing, and Allied Health, Seventh Edition]
35. [Defining sexual healthReport of a technical consultation on sexual health 28–31 January 2002, Geneva Geneva, 2006, World Health Organization.]

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