AT THE END OF LIFE, WILL YOU MANIFEST THE EGO IDEAL OR DEATH ANXIETY

Every walk of life, including Child and Youth Athletes, at one time or another, rejoice with human success, visit the elderly, cope-with and confront death. Hopefully, each individual will achieve senior hood. End of life experiences are often difficult. The more each individual understands about the phases of life the better life is.

EGO IDEAL vs DEATH ANXIETY

There are many ways to achieve success in life, professionally, occupationally, personally, athletically, socially and spiritually. Each these discipline’s subdivisions are unique and exclusive unto its own.

For example, carpentry is a specific subdivision of construction, bagels of baking, Asian of food, pre-school teacher of education, GMC CEO of automobile manufacturing, neurosurgery is a specific subdivision of surgery and so forth.

Personally, humans are men, women, children, single, married, divorced, mothers, fathers, great aunts, straight, LGBT, black, white, red, short, tall, heavy, slim, muscular and so on.

One thing human beings and our Creator can agree on is that people are very different, physically, psychologically and emotionally in addition to all the above other differences noted. Clothes are made differently to fit different sizes etcetera and psychiatrists have couch therapy variations.

Doctors don’t prescribe the same medicines for all patients. Teachers don’t teach all students the same math. Automobiles are manufactured differently to suit different people.

“Salvation refers to deliverance from an undesirable state or condition. In theology, the study of salvation is called ‘soteriology’ and is a vitally important concept in several religions.

Christianity regards salvation as deliverance from the bondage of sin and from condemnation, resulting in eternal life with God.”

“The term in Islam is ‘lost’. The Islamic lifestyle should develop in a way that is pleasing to God, so that one may receive his grace and enter the Garden.”

“Salvation to the Hindu is the soul’s liberation from the cycle of death and rebirth and attainment of the highest spiritual state.”

“Buddhism liberation, Nirvana, is seen as an end not only to suffering, but to the cycle of reincarnation and the end of ignorance. The Eightfold Path includes morality and meditation.”

Different religions and scientific, non-religious evidence support the hypothesis that humans necessitate change to reposition themselves upon their salvation pathway.

“‘Theistic Evolution’, ‘Theistic Evolutionism’, ‘Evolutionary Creationism’ or ‘God-Guided Evolution’ are views that regard religious teachings about God as compatible with modern scientific understanding about biological evolution.

“Theistic Evolution” is not in itself a scientific theory, but a range of views about how the science of general evolution relates to religious beliefs in contrast to special creation views.

“Supporters of ‘Theistic Evolution’ generally harmonize evolutionary thought with belief in God, rejecting the conflict thesis regarding the relationship between religion and science. They hold that religious teachings about creation and scientific theories of evolution need not contradict each other [Numbers 2006, pp. 34–38]  [Evolution Vs. Creationism, Eugenie Scott, Niles Eldredge, p62-63]

The first gigantic scientific evidence is as follows:  The first anatomical modern humans (Homo sapiens-sapiens) evolved about 200,000 years ago.

“They are the only existing members of the hominin clade (or human clade), a more modern branch of Homonids. They are characterized by erect posture and bipedal locomotion, manual dexterity and increased tool use, and a general trend toward larger, more complex brains and societies.”  145. 146.

God created all animals of the earth, which included, of course, the Hominid group of animals, which consisted of all extinct Great Apes, which preceded the Hominin group, which included all ancestors and, subsequently, we anatomical modern human animals.

Cognition was the second gigantic change that became required for humans to reposition themselves onto their salvation pathway.

“Integration of these latest data with the findings from the human genome project suggest that human foragers in Sub-Saharan Africa developed modern cognition and behavior by at least 70,000 BPY (Before Present Years in time scale), before the estimated timing of adaptive radiation out of Africa during the last glacial period.

“The development of modern human cognitive behavior, sophisticated hunting and foraging methods in Sub-Saharan Africa is thought to date from at least 50,000 years ago. This may have been due to an earlier climatic change to much drier and colder conditions during the last ice age, between 135,000 to 75,000 years ago.

“This was what led to human groups, who were seeking refuge from the inland droughts, expanded along the coastal marshes rich in shellfish and other resources.

“Since sea levels were low due to so much water tied up in glaciers, such marshlands would have occurred all along the southern coasts of Eurasia. The use of rafts and boats may well have facilitated exploration of offshore islands and travel along the coast, and eventually permitted expansion to New Guinea and then to Australia.  146. 147. 148.

In this reporter’s opinion, the evolution and natural selection, created by God, of Homo sapien-sapiens, Adam and Eve, with modern human cognitive behavior, “heart and mind in His likeness” was conceivably 50,000 to 70,000 years ago. Biblically, according to the King James Bible, which is also in accordance with today’s science.

Utopia is from the Greek Outopia, ou “not” + topos “place”. Utopia is etymologically not a physical place or a bad place. Utopia’s meaning was afterwards incorrectly extended to any perfect place by 1610s. Utopia was universally and inaccurately, taken from Greek Eutopia, eu- “good” and topos “place” a good place which was an error reinforced by the introduction of dystopia.  45. [On line Etymology Dictionary]

So where was the so called good place, Eutopia?

As it turns out, humans have been looking for God in all the wrong places. Eutopia, not Utopia (Thomas Moore) as defined by this author, is located just above the nose deep within the brain in 55+ right and left neuroanatomical locations.

The Dopamine neurochemical-energetic-transmitter nervous system for Spiritual, Religious and Meditation Thinking and Mindfulness (SRM T and M), for Faith and Belief in God in the  55+ right and left DNA encoded, (hardwired, inherited) neuroanatomical locations.

Eutopia, the human brain internet with the potential for faith and trust in God, is created within human brains for Holiness Transformation.

God’s ‘Final Stage of Creation’ are these encoded neuroanatomical God Spots located in brain: [ http://www.godmindcreations.com/] “created in His likeness and image.” [Gen 5:1]

SNAGing the brain (Stimulating Neural Activity and Growth of brain) is activation of Neuroanatomy, the Brain God Spots. SNAGing the Neuroanatomy is Not automatic, but requires human willful Activation of ‘Final Stage Human Creation’.

Spiritual growth of Brain Spiritual, Religious and Meditation Thinking and Mindfulness (SRM T and M), for Faith and Belief in God is called Neuroplastiticy.

Neurotheology is the neurobiological study of experiences and practices of SRM T and M for Faith and Belief in God

Examples of SNAGing the brain are spiritual, religious and meditative exercise activating Neurophysiology by daily reading, praying, worshiping, spending quiet time with God, singing, bible study and other practices .

Stimulating Neuoplasticity provides increased human strength, improved health, longevity, human success, life’s enjoyment, disease improvement, satisfaction and other health benefits [How God Changes Your Brain, Andrew Newberg+Mark Robert Waldman Mar2008]  [Preparing Sacred Space: Practicing Spiritual Disciplines With Brain in Mind Edward Davis Psy.D.+Pastor Jim Laffoon] [Eutopia,Whistle While You Work http://www.eutopia.website by Micheal B. Minix, Sr., M.D.] [Final Stage of Creation  http://www.godmindcreations.com/ by Micheal B. Minix, Sr., M.D.]

Eutopia is neither a “good”, “not”, or “bad” geographical topia (place) or any other geographical location. More accurately, Eutopia is a Spiritual and Religious Thinking Mindset, Spiritual Beliefs and Intellect driven by “Moral Molecules”. Eutopia is a good space, located within the “God spots (topia)”, anatomical brain places, not a geographical Garden of Eden.

Ironically, Eutopia is incredibly very different from Utopia (Thomas Moore). In a so named, Utopian world, with perfect legal, social and political systems, and perfect religions and other man made systems and perfect natural episodes, descendants of the original Homo sapien-sapiens sub-species would not be challenged enough to survive. For example the cliché, “What don’t kill you, will make you stronger” would not be initiated.

Fear of death would not be crucial under those circumstances and the defense mechanism for the fear of death, human’s complex neurochemical Spiritual and Religious Thinking brain system, would not be necessary. Life would be too perfect for implementation of survival of the fittest, the struggle for survival and natural selection. Humans would manifest Spiritual apathy and “peter-out”, so to speak.

Furthermore, in a Dystopian world, with man-made totally corrupt legal, social and political systems and corrupt religions, plus systems of rivalry, fighting and reprobate Homo sapien-sapiens, sub-species survival would also be terminated. Spirituality, Spiritual belief, Religiousness, Believing, prayer, meditation, self-transcendence and new sub-species would not satisfactorily evolve and human heathens would manifest Spiritual fatality, morbidity and mortality.  47.

Homo sapien-sapiens sub-species would cease to pray, meditate and worship and possibly terminate in both Utopia, where systems were too good and Dystopia, where systems were too evil and hopeless. Fortunately, there are no Utopias and Dystopias, only Eutopia, the final stage of creation.

In the real world, a perfect geographical place to live is irrelevant or moot, but a Eutopian Mindset is extremely essential (eho). Homo sapien-sapiens require and receive an average amount of contention, conflict and negativity, simultaneously defended by their “heart and mind in His likeness.” Spirituality, Belief, Religiousness and feeling good Mindsets will evolve through purposeful natural selection.  Humans are realistically challenged and mentally defended and the sub-species has and will continue to adapt and survive precluding a colossal disaster.

Under these conditions, significant systems are contentious, but not totally hopeless and humans most likely will seriously pray, meditate and worship God and manifest faith, hope and love as God intended and put faith in God in action. Contention, conflict and negative emotions aid in human survival. Evolved coping mechanisms aid human recovery.  131.

The intellectual defense mechanisms of “heart and mind in His likeness”, Strong Spirituality, Spiritual Belief, Religiousness and feeling good Mindsets, have evolved thru the past 50,000 to 70.000 years of Homo sapien-sapiens, modern cognitive anatomical human longevity and these defense mechanisms have been bestowed when challenged. The human energy creature has the potential to become fruitful, multiply, replenish, subdue, have dominion and fortify and amplify their energy resource in cybernetic push-pull bioenergetic systems God created.

God-Centered Mindsets with “heart and mind in His likeness” are the foundation of Eutopia, feeling good, Human Mental states, which are Neurochemical Systems of “Moral Molecules” that activate output action expressions of neurochemical nuclei, located in organized interconnected cerebral structures of the brain. God-Centered Mindsets also have the evolutionary potential for Homo sapien-sapiens sub-species survival, as natural selection onwardly advances life, until life on earth ends 500 million years from now, when the heat of the sun becomes so intense it evaporates all the water on earth and human life terminates as the result of the end of water, not earlier, from human cognitive failures, i.e. human spiritual distress, secondary to deficient prayer, meditation and worship. (eho). [The Future of Homo Sapiens, by professor Jacob Palme, First version 29-May-2006, last revision 23-Mar-2014]  [Negative Emotions Are Key to Well-Being, Surprise: negative emotions are essential for mental health, by Tori Rodriguez, Scientific American, Apr 11, 2013]

Adam and Eve exhibited the first modern developmental personality flaw, mistrust. They rejected the trustworthiness of God, disobeyed Him, and ate the forbidden apple, which was their “now” reward”.

“Thus, Adam and Eve failed to obey God and delay gratification.

“Instant gratification was manifest in those circumstances. The original personality flaw, mistrust, was the lack trustworthiness of God, as perceived by Adam and Eve, which led to the original sin, not an Ideal Ego building block.

“Delaying gratification is difficult, yet predictive of important life outcomes, such as academic achievement and physical health.

Prominent theories focus on the role of self-control, hypersensitivity to immediate rewards, and the cost of time spent waiting. However, delaying gratification may also require trust in people delivering future rewards as promised and perceived trustworthiness predicted willingness to delay gratification. It appeared trust was ultimately intended by God for His grace.

“Thus, delaying gratification may depend upon interpersonal trust similar to Adam, Eve and the serpent, which refers to an interdependent relationship in which one party has a social expectation of cooperation from another party (Robinson,1996; de Visser and Krueger, 2012). Trust in others is dynamically updated through experience (King-Casas et al., 2005), and can be can be modulated by information about others’ prior behavior (Delgado et al., 2005) and perceptions of their ability to regulate their own behavior (Righetti and Finkenauer, 2011), as well as by motivational and affective states (Dunn and Schweitzer, 2005; Van den Bos et al., 2011).” 149.

The implementation of trust was destined for belief and trust in God.

“Trust is a critical social process that helps us to cooperate with others and is present to some degree in all human interaction. However, the underlying brain mechanisms of conditional and unconditional trust in social reciprocal exchange are still obscure. The following research utilized hyperfunctional MRI, magnetic resonance imaging. Conditional trust selectively activated the ventral tegmental area, a region linked to the evaluation of expected and realized reward, whereas unconditional trust selectively activated the septal area, a region linked to social attachment behavior. The interplay of these neural systems supports reciprocal exchange that operates beyond the immediate spheres of kinship, one of the distinguishing features of the human species.” 150.

God created a cognitive brain with neural networks for trust and belief.

“Interpersonal trust is an expectation about a future behavior of another person and an accompanying feeling of calmness, confidence, and security depending on the degree of trust and the extent of the associated risk. (Freely translated from Kassebaum, 2004, p. 21)

“Interpersonal trust involves two parties who interact with each other: on the one hand side, the person who trusts, ego, the trustor (German: Vertrauender or Treugeber).

“If the expectation of trust is not fulfilled, harm is caused. The (subjective) value of the harm together with the (subjective) uncertainty reflects a risk. This risk is an immanent property of a trust situation.”

The affective response of trust consists of “feelings of confidence and security” (Rempel et al., 1985). The behavioral component can be formulated in a compact way as: “Trust is anticipated cooperation” (Burt and Knez, 1995). Within this component, trust is expressed as a verbal intention or as a behavior with cooperative tendency. As the cognitive response, the individual thinks about the risk in the situation and the attributes of the other. The risk must be perceived cognizant, as Luhmann (1989, Chap. 4) and Kee and Knox (1970) emphasize.  151. to 162.

The original personality flaw, mistrust, was the lack of God’s trustworthiness, as perceived by Adam and Eve, which led to the original sin.

This mistrust set the tone for God’s creation of the neurochemical-energetic-transmitter nervous system to Believe in God. Eutopia, the human brain internet with the potential for faith and trust in God, appeared to be created within human brains for Holiness Transformation from human Spiritual despair to positive Spirituality with faith, hope and love.

READ MORE BEYOND THESE References:

140. [A New Physics Theory of Life, by Natalie Wolchover, Quanta  Magazine January 22, 2014]

141. [Spiritual Enterprise 2015]

142. [MindReflector, EEG driven experience]

143.  [God Attachment: Why You Believe, Act, and Feel the Way You Do About God, Tim Clinton, Joshua Straub, Simon and Schuster, Aug 3, 2010 – Religion – 256 pages]

144. [Biography of Eric Erickson (Born in Frankfort, Germany 1902 and died in 1994) by Wendy Sharkey (May 1997)]

145. [Goodman M, Tagle D, Fitch D, Bailey W, Czelusniak J, Koop B, Benson P, Slightom J (1990). “Primate evolution at the DNA level and a classification of hominoids”. J Mol Evol30 (3): 260-266  doi:10.1007/BF02099995.PMID 2109087.

146. [“Hominidae Classification”. Animal Diversity Web @ UMich. Retrieved 2006-09-25 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ajpa.21011/abstract]

147. “East African megadroughts between 135 and 75 thousand years ago and bearing on early-modern human origins” Christopher A. Scholz, et al; PNAS vol. 104 no. 42. pp 16416-16421 http://www.pnas.org/content/104/42/16416.full

148.  [The Journey of Man: A Genetic Odyssey” by Spencer Wells, Princeton Press http://press.princeton.edu/titles/7442.html ]

149. [Delaying gratification depends on social trust by Laura Michaelson,1,*† Alejandro de la Vega,1,† Christopher H. Chatham,2 and Yuko Munakata1, Front Psychol. 2013; 4: 355, Published online 2013 Jun 19]

150. [Neural correlates of trust, by Frank Krueger et al, Proceedings of the National Academy opf Science, December 11, 2007  vol. 104 no. 50]

151. R.S. Burt and M. Knez. Kinds of third-party effects on trust. In Rationality and Society, 7(3), pp. 255–292, 1995. doi:10.1177/1043463195007003003.

152. R.H. Fazio and R.E. Petty (eds.). Attitudes: Their Structure, Function, and Consequences. Psychology Press, New York, 2008. ISBN 978-1-84169-009-4.

153. C. Gennerich. Vertrauen: ein beziehungsanalytisches Modell – untersucht am Beispiel der Beziehung von Gemeindegliedern zu ihrem Pfarrer. Huber, Bern, 2000. ISBN 3-456-83496-9.

154. U.B. Kassebaum. Interpersonelles Vertrauen: Entwicklung eines Inventars zur Erfassung spezifischer Aspekte des Konstrukts. Ph.D. thesis, Universität Hamburg, Hamburg, 2004. URL http://www.sub.uni-hamburg.de/opus/volltexte/2004/2125 .

155. H.W. Kee and R.E. Knox. Conceptual and methodological considerations in the study of trust and suspicion. In Journal of Conflict Resolution, 14(3), pp. 357–366, 1970. doi:10.1177/002200277001400307.

156. N. Luhmann. Trust and Power. Wiley, Chichester, 1979. ISBN 0471997587.

157. N. Luhmann. Vertrauen: ein Mechanismus der Reduktion sozialer Komplexität. 3rd edition. Enke, Stuttgart, 1989. ISBN 3-432-83773-9. For an English translation see Luhmann, 1979.

158. C. Narowski. Vertrauen: Begriffsanalyse und Operationalisierungsversuch; Prolegomena zu einer empirischen psychologisch-pädagogischen Untersuchung der zwischenmenschlichen Einstellung: Vertrauen. Ph.D. thesis, Eberhard-Karls-Universität, Tübingen, 1974.

159. J.K. Rempel, J.G. Holmes, and M.P. Zanna. Trust in close relationships. In Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 49(1), pp. 95–112, 1985. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.49.1.95.

160. G. Simmel. Soziologie: Untersuchungen über die Formen der Vergesellschaftung. 5th edition. Dunker & Humbolt, Berlin, 1968.

161. H. Strasser and S. Voswinkel. Vertrauen im gesellschaftlichen Wandel. In M. K. W. Schweer (ed.),Interpersonales Vertrauen: Theorien und empirische Befunde, pp. 217–236. Westdeutscher Verlag, Opladen, 1997. ISBN 3-531-13033-1.

162. [Interpersonal Trust – Attempt of a Definition by Walter Bamberger, Technische Universität München, 2010]

Thus, it appears, that all Homo sapien-sapiens, human being species, are modern anatomical cognitive humans, who evolved 50,000 to 70,000 years ago and who were initially ‘lost’ and required change, Nirvana or salvation and “deliverance from an undesirable state or condition.”

However, because scientist and religious scholars know of only one Created universe, (there may be many more, at present evidence is sparse), there must only be One Creator, or One God with many accessible salvation pathways.

One size salvation cannot fit all the human variations. Therefore, it is very important that each individual have faith and belief in their salvation pathway and tolerance and respect of others’ salvation pathways.

For humans, who believe in heaven, everyone wants to go there, but no one wants to go now, because most humans have, Death Anxiety, despite widspread knowledge that “the heaven of heaven’s is a consolation of central glory”.  [Essays Designed to Afford Christian Encouragement and Consolation by John Sheppard, Whittaker, 1834 – Consolation – 405 pages]

“”> Death is the only certainty in life and yet it remains the greatest cause of human anxiety. The reason remains a mystery. For a counter argument see de Vocht (2006).

One of the causes of Death Anxiety is the unkown nature of what lies beyond death (Parkes 1978).

·        Death is guaranteed

·        Yet unpredictable in its timing

·        Making it indiscriminate

·        May offer explanation for anxiety

·        human knowledge and science have failed to stop or control death

·        Makes death remain ill-understood

·        Thus humans construct their own image of death

·        The image is largely negative or destructive and therefore induces anxiety. <””

[Towards a definition of death anxiety by Brian Nyatanga and Hilde de Vocht, International Journal of Palliative Nursing 2006 12:9, 410-413]

Death Anxiety is anxiety which is caused by thoughts of death. One source defines death anxiety as a “feeling of dread, apprehension or solicitude (anxiety) when one thinks of the process of dying, or ceasing to ‘be'”.[1]

Death Anxiety is also referred to as thanatophobia (fear of death), and is distinguished from necrophobia, which is a specific fear of dead or dying persons and/or things (i.e. others who are dead or dying, not one’s own death or dying).[2]  [1. Definition by Farley G.: Death anxiety. National Health Service UK. 2010, found in: Peters L, Cant R, Payne S, O’Connor M, McDermott F, Hood K, Morphet J, Shimoinaba K (2013). “How death anxiety impacts nurses’ caring for patients at the end of life: a review of literature”(PDF). Open Nurs J. 7: 14–21. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-10-14]  [2. The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition 2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Updated in 2009. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company]

“In his structural theory, Sigmund Freud described the ego as the mediator between the id and super-ego and the external world. The task of the ego is to find a balance between primitive drives, morals, and reality, while simultaneously satisfying the id and superego.

“Freudians saw the ego as forming from separate ‘nuclei’: ‘A final ego is formed by synthetic integration of these nuclei, and in certain states of ego regression a split of the ego into its original nuclei becomes observable’.”[7]

“The main concern of the ego is with safety, ideally only allowing the id’s desires to be expressed when the consequences are marginal.

“Ego defenses are often employed by the ego when id behavior conflicts with reality and either society’s morals, norms, and taboos, or an individual’s internalization of these morals, norms, and taboos. Freud noted however that in the face of conflicts with superego or id, it was always ‘possible for the ego to avoid a rupture by submitting to encroachments on its own unity and even perhaps by effecting a cleavage or division of itself’.”[8] [Sigmund Freud, On Metapsychology (PFL 11) p. 462]  [Sigmund Freud, On Psychopathology (PFL 10) p. 217]

One function of the ‘Ego Life’ is about sorting thru similarities and differences, evaluating and choosing. Ego Integrity depends on how the ‘Ego Life’ or ‘Ego Identity’ was framed.

“Ego identity is the attainment of a firm sense

·        of self,

·        who one is,

·        where one is headed in life,

·        and in what one believes.

“People who achieve ego identity clearly understand their

·        personal needs,

·        values

·        and life goals.

“Erikson coined the term identity crisis to describe the stressful period of soul-searching and serious self –examination that many adolescents experience when struggling to develop a set of personal values and direction in life. [Essentials of Psychology: Concepts and Applications by Jeffrey S. Nevid, Cengage Learning, Dec 5, 2016 – Education – 688 pages]

The International Dictionary of Psychoanalysis began the description of Ego Identity from Erik Erikson’s diagnosis of patient.

“It is too easy to see a patient only as a group of symptoms” he commented.

“According to Erik Erikson, the main issue is to determine whether it is a question of a person having a neurosis, or of the neurosis ‘having’ the person. The former is a ‘physical life’ and the latter is the ‘psyche life’. The psyche is the totality of both the conscious and unconscious human mind, the part of the brain that does all the thinking, dreaming and feeling.  .

“Erikson insisted fears and anxieties as two very different neuropsychiatric problems. Fears and apprehensions focus on realistic responses to dangers, whereas anxieties, provoked by dysfunction in the internal controls, magnify obstacles without providing the means to surmount them.

“Adaptive responses that are appropriate to reality are all too likely to be discounted if one understands the ego as being essentially a collection of defenses against the internal drives.

“The key, according to Erikson, is to seek in the ego the organizational capacities that create the strength necessary for reconciling discontinuities and ambiguities.

“Like Sigmund Freud, Erikson envisioned an unconscious ego. But like other post-Freudians, he emphasized that the ego has a unifying function and ensures coherent behavior and conduct.

“The ego does not only have a negative function, that of avoiding anxiety; it plays as well the positive role of ensuring efficient functioning.

“The ego’s defenses are not necessarily pathogenic: Some are adaptive, while others are the source of maladaptations.

“It is true that anxiety and feelings of guilt can disrupt adaptation. Moreover, the external environment has its own inherent deficiencies. But in attempting to measure the strength of the ego, Erikson did not limit himself to the earlier psychoanalytic norm and seek, in a personality, only that which is denied or cut off.

“Rather, Erikson was interested in measuring the limit that the individual’s ego is capable of unifying.

“The ego protects the person’s indivisibility, oneness, and everything that underlies the strength of the ego adds to its identity. If Freud understood identity as being in part acquired, this was due to the very particular types of patients he had treated.

“For Erikson, identity is what maintains in the individual inner solidarity with the ideals and aspirations of social groups.

“The ego has a general balancing function: It puts things in perspective and prepares them in view of possible action.

“The strength of the ego, as Erikson conceived it, explains the difference between the feeling of being whole and the feeling of being fragmented. In the best of cases, it enables the individual to understand that the feeling of being at one with oneself comes through growth and development.

In addition to a feeling of continuity, according to Erikson, every individual needs a sense of novelty, obtained only through the leeway inherent in an assured identity. By “leeway,” he meant maintaining in our experience a centrality, an evident self that, alone, enables us to make fully aware choices.

Early in his work Erikson called this identity “ego identity” after the model of Freud’s “ego ideal.” “Ideal is a standard of perfection, beauty, or excellence” [Merriam-Webster}

As a subsystem of the ego, identity’s task is to choose and integrate self-representations derived from childhood psychosocial crises. Too often, in the history of psychoanalysis, there has been a tendency to forget that on the clinical level, the ego was posited as an enduring agent of selection and integration that plays a central role in the sound functioning of the personality.

“This inner “synthesizer,” which silently organizes a coherent experience and guides action, is precisely what is so often lacking in present-day patients.

“By contrast, the patients of the earliest psychoanalyses were for the most part suffering from inhibitions that prevented them from being what they were, or what they believed themselves to be.

[Erikson, Erik H. (1950). Childhood and society. New York: W. W. Norton. (1959). Identity and the life cycle. New York: International Universities Press. (1968). Identity: Youth and crisis. New York: W. W. Norton]  [Roazen, Paul. (1976). Erik H. Erikson: The power and limits of a vision. Northvale, NJ: Jason Aronson]  [Ego Identity, International Dictionary of Psychoanalysis. . Encyclopedia.com. 17 Jan. 2018 <http://www.encyclopedia.com ]

Following are Erik Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Human Development

Stage One – Trust vs Mistrust. …

Stage Two – Autonomy vs Shame and Doubt. …

Stage Three – Initiative vs Guilt. …

Stage Four – Industry vs Inferiority. …

Stage Five – Identity vs Role Confusion. …

Stage Six – Intimacy vs Isolation. …

Stage Eight – Ego Integrity vs Despair.

[Erik Erikson by Saul McLeod, updated 2017, Simply Psychology]

“”> The opposite of Ego Integrity and Wisdom is Despair

Developmental psychologist, Erik Erikson, formulated the psychosocial theory that explained that people progress through a series of crises as they grow older.

“The theory also envelops the concept that once an individual reaches the latest stages of life, they reach the level, which he titled “Ego Integrity or Despair”.

Erik Erikson believed if we see our lives as unproductive, feel guilt about our past, or feel that we did not accomplish our life goals, we become dissatisfied with life and develop despair, often leading to depression and hopelessness.

Ego Integrity is manifest when one comes to terms with their life and accepts it.

When a person reaches the stage of late adulthood they become involved in a thorough overview of their life to date. When one can find meaning or purpose in their life, they have reached the Integrity Stage.

In opposition, when an individual views their life as a series of failed and missed opportunities, then they do not reach the Ego Integrity Stage.

Elders that have attained this stage of Ego Integrity are believed to exhibit less impact from Death Anxiety.<”” [Death anxiety and the emotion-processing mind, Psychoanalytic Psychology, vol. 21, no.1, 31-53; Langs, R. (2004) Fundamentals of Adaptive Psychotherapy and Counseling. London: Palgrave-Macmillan]  [Meyers, Karen; Golden, Robert N.; Peterson, Fred (1 January 2009). “The Truth about Death and Dying”. Infobase Publishing]

Ego Integrity was the term given by Erik Erikson to the last of his 8 Stages of Psychosocial Development, and used by him to represent ‘a post-narcissistic love of the human ego, as an experience which conveys some world order and spiritual sense, no matter the acquisitioned consequences’.[1]

Ego Integrity can also be used with respect to

·        the development of a reliable sense of self

·        a reliable sense of other

·        and an understanding of how those constructs interact to form a person’s experience of reality

·        as well as to the way ‘the synthetic function of the ego, though it is of such extraordinary importance, is subject…to a whole number of disturbances’. [2]

·        As we grow older (65+ years) and become senior citizens, we tend to slow down our productivity and explore life as a retired person.<””

Gail Sheehy termed the later stage of ‘Second Adulthood…Age of Integrity (65-85+)’. [5]   [Gail Sheehy, New Passages (London 19960 p. 14]

{{{ side bar: Cicero authored a short essay ‘On A Life Well Spent’ republished with a preface by Benjamin Franklin, and again republished in 2006.

“This was written shortly before Cicero’s murder and is a series of short essays reflecting on growing old. It is written for his contemporaries and references people and events with the expectation that the reader is familiar with these people and events. [R. Calloway, 2007, book review]

“Marcus Tullius Cicero (3 January 106 BC – 7 December 43 BC) was a Roman philosopher, politician, lawyer, orator, political theorist, consul, and constitutionalist. He came from a wealthy municipal family of the Roman equestrian order, and was one of Rome’s greatest orators and prose stylists.

“His influence on the Latin language was so immense that the subsequent history of prose in not only Latin but European languages up to the 19th century was said to be either a reaction against or a return to his style. According to Michael Grant, “the influence of Cicero upon the history of European literature and ideas greatly exceeds that of any other prose writer in any language”. Cicero introduced the Romans to the chief schools of Greek philosophy and created a Latin philosophical vocabulary (with neologisms such as evidentia, humanitas, qualitas, quantitas, and essentia) distinguishing himself as a linguist, translator, and philosopher.

“Petrarch’s rediscovery of Cicero’s letters is often credited for initiating the 14th-century Renaissance in public affairs, humanism, and classical Roman culture. According to Polish historian Tadeusz Zieliński, “Renaissance was above all things a revival of Cicero, and only after him and through him of the rest of Classical antiquity.”

“The peak of Cicero’s authority and prestige came during the 18th-century Enlightenment, and his impact on leading Enlightenment thinkers such as John Locke, David Hume, and Montesquieu was substantial. His works rank among the most influential in European culture, and today still constitute one of the most important bodies of primary material for the writing and revision of Roman history, especially the last days of the Roman Republic.

Though he was an accomplished orator and successful lawyer, Cicero believed his political career was his most important achievement. [Amazon book review, Amazon books for sale, 2018] – end side bar}}}

[Continuing Erikson, McLeod] ‘It is during this time, ‘Erikson’s Stage 8, Ego Integrity vs Despair’ that we contemplate a life well spent, our accomplishments and can develop a self-rewarded sense of integrity and honor, if we see ourselves as having lead a successful life.

Success in this stage will lead to the virtue of wisdom. The virtue of wisdom enables a person to look back on their life with a sense of closure and completeness, and also accept death without fear.<””  [Erik Erikson by Saul McLeod, updated 2017, Simply Psychology]

Einstein said, “it is better to believe than to disbelieve; in so doing, you bring everything to the realm of possibility.” Faith and Belief are Ideal Ego fundamentals.

Mahatma Gandhi commented on the virtue of wisdom, “To me God is Truth and love; ethics and morality; fearlessness, source of Light and Life and yet He is above and beyond all these. God is Conscience… a personal God to those who need His personal presence, embodied to those who need His touch, the purest essence. He is simply to those who have faith and belief, all things to all people.”

·        For many professions, occupations, personal and social disciplines

·        There are many salvation pathways to Faith and Belief in God

·        All deserving everyone’s’ tolerance and respect

·        Likewise, for the scientifically inclined, the salvation pathway of Scientific Evidenced Based

Christian God-Centered, Faith and Belief in God can be accomplished while praising Jesus our messiah (teacher), who was born in pure, perfect union with the word of God.

·        Both are key to ‘A Life Well Spent’, Ego Integrity, and Wisdom Stage 8 of Erik Erikson’s  Psychosocial Development

“Research has attempted to provide the theological dimension of Erik Erikson’s last stage of life, the crisis of ego integrity versus despair. In this crisis an answer is demanded to the question, “Was my life worthwhile?”

“A positive or negative verdict must be reached. The “Life Review” is necessary for the resolution of this conflict. Such a life review is often precipitated by the awareness of death.

“A few cases are briefly cited to show how elderly patients in a Veterans Administration (V.A.) Hospital setting have coped with this crisis. Two theological ideas are brought to bear on this problem.

“One is a review of one’s life in connection with James Fowler’s idea of “master story,” of how effectively we connect with our cherished religious symbols, and the other is Donald Capps’s “parabolic event,” or how we interpret events in the past as having the potential for new insights.

“A new look at repentance and confession is necessary as they are approximate psychological counterparts to these theological teachings. [Attaining Ego Integrity Through Life Review, by Robert L. Richter D Min Journal of Religion & Aging Vol. 2, Iss. 3, 1986]

The World Health Organization (WHO) defines health not only as the absence of disease but also as a state of complete physical, mental, social and spiritual well‐being.2 Health is seen not only as a resource for everyday life but also as an important dimension of Quality of Life (QoL).

“This means that reviewing research on QoL becomes relevant for public health and in health promotion. [Eriksson M, Lindström B. Antonovsky’s sense of coherence scale and its relation with quality of life: a systematic review. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health. 2007;61(11):938-944].

Because scientist and religious scholars know that there is only one Created universe, (there may be many more; at present evidence for a multiuniverse is sparse), there must be only One Creator, our One God, with many accessible salvation pathways for the multitude of different humans.

One size salvation cannot fit all human variations. Indigenous, Amazon Rainforesst native people are much different from natives of Manhatten, New York. Most Manhattenites have never heard of the Nhengatu native language, much less speak it, and never witnessed Nhengatu customs,

Amazon Rainforesst natives are also God’s children and have a salvation pathway. Like others, the pathway is to be found and utilized Nhengatuly,  Manhattenites and others should respect their rights, language and customs. All human rights begin and end with God.

Therefore, it is very important that each earthly individual have and practice their faith and belief and strive for perfection of the word along their pathway to God and display tolerance and respect for other salvation pathways.

Each Christian individual should emulate Jesus, believe his new morality, practice his gentleness, generosity, forgiveness, and abide by faith, hope and love and others in acordance with their beliefs.

Humans were never destined to live in the Garden of Eden. All Homo sapien-sapiens are modern anatomical cognitive human animals. Although, culturally and socially, not all on earth have developed and progressed the same.

When humans look back on their lives, count family blessings and reflect-on gratifying life time events and happiness and consider the mentors they have emulated, education they have attained and think about professional, occupational, athletic, social, political, personal and honorable accomplishments following properly arranged priorities, they can ask themselves if they have achieved their main objectives and goals, which they set in life, and found their meaning and purpose of life with satisfaction and integrity.

Most importantly, human lifestyles should proceed in a way that is pleasing to God, obedient by word and deed to God with a solid Ego Ideal foundation, so that each human may receive His grace and enter the Garden of Eternity.

‘Gunsmokes’ Doc Adams commented. “there’s something to be said for a person, who dies happy.”

And ‘This Is Us’:  With resilient selfhood, concrete priorities and passionate ego structures, an individual achieves the Ego Ideal with Integrity and can proudly contemplate a life well spent, rather than manifest worry, anxiety and the fear of Death.

5,940 words

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