Non-Human animals do not have the Complex Cognitive Minds that Human Animals have.

Up front. The souls’ energy from brains with different neurons, (different brain cells) i.e Non-Human Animals and Human Animals, will not exit their brains at death and head in the same direction. Animals will not go to Human Heaven.

“The conclusion of excellent research follows:

“Social Scientists, Psychologists, Philosophers don’t conduct the same types experiments that medical doctors, pathologists, physiologists, anatomists do. Their conclusions and terms are different.

“Microscopic study of the human brain has revealed neural structures, enhanced wiring, and forms of connectivity among nerve cells not found in any animal, challenging the view that the human brain is simply an enlarged chimpanzee brain.

“On the other hand, cognitive studies have found animals to have abilities once thought unique to the human.

“This suggests a disparity between brain and mind. The suggestion is misleading.

“Cognitive research has not kept pace with neural research. Neural findings are based on microscopic study of the brain and are primarily cellular.

“Because cognition cannot be studied microscopically, we need to refine the study of cognition by using a different approach. In examining claims of similarity between animals and humans, one must ask: What are the dissimilarities?

“This approach prevents confusing similarity with equivalence. We follow this approach in examining eight cognitive cases—teaching, short-term memory, causal reasoning, planning, deception, transitive inference, theory of mind, and language—and find, in all cases, that similarities between animal and human abilities are small, dissimilarities large.

“Animal competencies are mainly adaptations restricted to a single goal. Human competencies are domain-general and serve numerous goals. For instance “planning” may be tied to episodic memory, suggesting a broad competence.

“However, if episodic memory is confined to one (or only a few) activities, planning itself will be a narrow competence. Differences in the evolutionary origins of animal and human abilities help explain why the one is tied to a single goal, and the other to indeterminately many goals.

“In humans, teaching did not evolve in the context of food seeking (by stalking or coping with toxic food) as it apparently did in animals; but in a far broader context arguably involving TOM (Theory of Mind), language, and aesthetics. In causal reasoning, animal limitations are of a different kind: The sense of cause may originate in personal actions that result in a desirable or undesirable outcome.

“In the human, the sense graduates to impersonal actions: a rock that falls on a plant crushing it, a wind that blows out a flame, etc., to events that humans recognize as causal. Does the animal make the human transition, or does its sense of cause remain tied to personal action? This question awaits decisive evidence. Further, because animals have no concept of monotonic order, although “transitive inference” is widely found in animals, it cannot be based on logic or reasoning.

“The broad range of cognitive cases, which includes teaching, causal reasoning, short-term memory, planning, TOM, etc., consistently shows fundamental limitations in the animal version of the human competence. There is no anomaly in the disparity—the disparity between human and animal cognition is compatible with the disparity between human and animal brain. The coming challenge is to understand the function of the cellular-level differences between human and animal brain. Work linking these neural changes to cognitive processes can now move forward.  [Human and animal cognition: Continuity and discontinuity by David Premack, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Aug 2007, 104 (35) 13861-13867]

Humans have cognitive complexity other animals lack.

“Humans evolved as social creatures that developed moral codes as a way of sustaining the social order.

“The role of a clawless, relatively toothless, and comparatively physically vulnerable bipedal ape drove the evolving human brain to emphasize computational power and mental abstraction over grit and brawn.

“These forces colluded to create the experience of human consciousness.

“The same evolutionary forces do not apply to dogs, rabbits, or mice. Each animal possesses a brain, and likely a consciousness, that reflects the animal’s position in the specific ecological niche that evolutionary forces carved out for it.

Human animals Homo sapien-sapiens design tools and other animals use tools they find. Compare the Chimpanzee termite fishing stick found on the ground and human fishing rod, reel, line, hook, bait, boat, outboard motor, human inventions.

Animals fly if they have wings. Humans design airplanes.

“Animals differ widely in many learning and cognitive tasks in ways that reflect their evolutionary history and their instinctual behaviors in natural environments.”

“Although some animals seem clever, they don’t actually possess conceptional intelligence. They can’t, for instance, conceive of the abstract notion of justice.”

“Animals lack a moral sense. When you scold a dog for chewing the carpet and tell him what he did was “wrong,” you aren’t assigning guilt of sin to him, since he can’t commit a sin.”

Human cognition and non-human cognition are different. Non-human cognition is primarily for survival in natural settings and lacking complex language, perceptions, attention, selective learning, divided attention, long term memory, Mindfulness and so on.

Medical scientists concluded that humans are the only animals in the Animal Kingdom that think like humans, complexly; yet, are the most unhappy animal.

“Many regions fundamental to mood in the limbic system are buried deep in the most primordial parts of the Human and Animal brain; that is, they are thought to have been among the first to develop in the human species. This is probably because mood is evolutionarily important.

“The limbic system is the major primordial brain network underpinning mood. It’s a network of regions that work together to process and make sense of the world.

“Neurotransmitters, such as serotonin and dopamine, are used as chemical messengers to send signals across the network. Brain regions receive these signals, which results in us recognising objects and situations, assigning them an emotional value to guide behaviour and making split-second risk/reward assessments.

“The limbic system sits under the cerebrum (the largest and newest part of the brain) and is made up of structures such as the hypothalamus, hippocampus and the amygdala.

“The almond-shaped amygdala attaches emotional significance to events and memories. It came to the attention of emotion researchers in 1939 when monkeys whose amygdalae were removed showed bizarre patterns of behaviour. They became fearless, hypersexual and either devoid of emotion or irrationally aggressive.  [The emotion centre is the oldest part of the human brain: why is mood so important? September 25, 2016, Conversation]

“Animals have a limbic system, suffer from emothional distress, and PTSD has been recognized in elephants.” The Cognitive Mind in humans sits above the limbic system in the human cerebrum. [Limbic System in Animals, May 2, 2016]

But primordial limbic system physiology is not the same as Human complex cognitinon.

Humans, who daily practice and stimulate spiritual, religious and/or meditative neural activity and growth of their brain centers for belief and faith,  live longer, get well quicker, use less alcohol, drugs and have less depression and suicide.

Humans, who do not, are unhappy. [Neuroplasticity, Neurotheology]

Belief and faith can be explained in many different Human languages, semantics:

English, German, French, Russian, Polish, Buddhist, Hindu, Islam, Science, Chemistry, Astrophysics, Mathematics, Roman Law, Music, prayer.

No one group of humans have a corner on belief and faith.

Medical scientists concluded that humans are the only animals in the Animal Kingdom that think complexly,
• yet, are the most unhappy animal.
• Humans, who daily practice and stimulate spiritual, religious and/or meditative neural activity and growth of their brain centers for belief and faith,
• live longer, get well quicker, use less alcohol, drugs and have less depression and suicide and are happy.
• Humans, who do not, are unhappy.
• Belief and faith can be explained in many different Human languages, semantics:
• i.e. English, German, French, Russian, Polish, Buddhist, Hindu, Islam, Science, Chemistry, Astrophysics, Mathematics, Roman Law, music, drums, chants, prayer, reading, listening
• [Neuroplasticity, Neurotheology are multidisciplenary disciplines]

  • Neurotheology is a misnomer.
  • Neurotheology is multidisciplined and links the totality of religion, theology, anatomy, physiology pathology, psychiatry, psychology, philosophy, cognitive neuroscience, genetics, endocrinology, macro- and micro- perspectives of neuroscience, morbidity and mortality of the entire brain and body, astrophysics, theory of relativity, quantum mechanics, universe, gravity and more.
  • Neurotheology is “an abundant diversity of issues and topics lined under one (sic misnamed) heading.”
  • Please review the Principles of Neurotheology by Associate Prof Andrew B Newberg, Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., Jun 28, 2013, 286 pages
  • “Neuroplasticity, also known as brain plasticity and neural plasticity, is the ability of the brain to change throughout an individual’s life, e.g., brain activity associated with a given function can be transferred to a different location, the proportion of grey matter can change, and synapses may strengthen or weaken over time.
  • “Research in the latter half of the 20th century showed that many aspects of the brain can be altered (or are “plastic”) even through adulthood. This notion is in contrast with the previous scientific consensus that the brain develops during a critical period in early childhood and then remains relatively unchanged (or “static”).
  • [Bennett EL, Diamond MC, Krech D, Rosenzweig MR (1964). “Chemical and Anatomical Plasticity of the Brain”. Science. 146: 610–619. doi:10.1126/science.146.3644.610. PMID 14191699.
  • [Livingston R.B. (1966). “Brain mechanisms in conditioning and learning”. Neurosciences Research Program Bulletin. 4 (3): 349–354.
  • [Rakic, P. (January 2002). “Neurogenesis in adult primate neocortex: an evaluation of the evidence”. Nature Reviews Neuroscience. 3 (1): 65–71. doi:10.1038/nrn700. PMID 11823806
  • [Pascual-Leone A.; Amedi A.; Fregni F.; Merabet L. B. (2005). “The plastic human brain cortex”. Annual Review of Neuroscience. 28: 377 401.  doi: 10.1146 / annurev.neuro. 27.070203.144216

• No one group of humans has cornered the market for belief and faith. Humans who find the path to salvation, no matter by ‘train, plane or automobile’  will be happy and not fear death.

Humans, who willfully stimulate neural activity and growth of the brain (Neuroplasticty, Neurotheology) thru the practice of spirituality, religiousness and/or meditation thinking and mindfulness will be more happy, satisfied, contemplate a ‘life well spent’ and not fear death.

Therefore, it is very important that each earthly individual have and practice their belief and faith and strive for perfection of the word along their pathway to God and display tolerance and respect for other salvation pathways.

Humans were never destined to live in the Garden of Eden. All Homo sapien-sapiens are modern anatomical cognitive human animals. Although, culturally and socially, not all on earth have developed and progressed the same.

When humans look back on their lives, count family blessings, reflect-on gratifying life time events and happiness, consider the mentors they have emulated, education they have attained, think about professional, occupational, athletic, social, political, personal and honorable accomplishments following properly arranged priorities, they can ask themselves if they have achieved their main objectives and goals, which they set in life, and found their meaning and purpose of life with satisfaction and integrity.

Most importantly, human lifestyles should proceed in a way that is pleasing to God, obedient by word and deed to God with a solid Ego Ideal foundation, so that each human may receive His grace and enter the Garden of Eternity.

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