INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIP SCIENCE

INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS are affected by many factors. Six of the factors that affect relationships, because the factors cannot be blended, synthesized and synchronized are:

1.     COMMUNICATION

2.     BELONINGNESS

3.     INTERPERSONAL ENERGY FIELDS

4.     SCIENCE OF LOVE

5.     TYPES of THINKING including Spiritual Thinking

6.     TEMPERAMENT

Mixing Consciousness (Conscious Mind) and Other Brain NeuroNetworks For Interpersonal Relationships Is Like Synthesizing and Synchronizing Music Inputs from 2 different sources at a recording production studio.

Consider the ‘hard science’ 1st. Synthesizing NeuroNetworks has been investigated in 2 primary scientific disciplines. The first and oldest, preferred inputs for neurons in neural networks, has been investigated in deep generator, cold, dry, mechanistic networks.

“Deep neural networks (DNNs) have demonstrated state-of-the-art results on many pattern recognition tasks, especially vision classification problems.

“Understanding the inner workings of such ‘computational brains’ is both fascinating basic science that is interesting in its own right, similar to why we study the human brain, and will enable researchers to further improve DNNs.” But therein are many downsides using this method.

“One path to understanding how a neural network functions internally is to study what each of its neurons has learned to detect. One such method is called activation maximization (AM), which synthesizes an input (e.g. an image) that highly activates a neuron.

This artificial, automated method described is not recommended but described for contrast to the preferred Penrose-Hameroff Orch Or Theory. “Here we dramatically improve the qualitative state of the art of activation maximization by harnessing a powerful, learned prior: a deep generator network (DGN). The algorithm (1) generates qualitatively state-of-the-art synthetic images that look almost real, (2) reveals the features learned by each neuron in an interpretable way, (3) generalizes well to new datasets and somewhat well to different network architectures without requiring the prior to be relearned, and (4) can be considered as a high-quality generative method (in this case, by generating novel, creative, interesting, recognizable images). [Neural and Evolutionary Computing (cs.NE); Artificial Intelligence (cs.AI); Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (cs.CV); Machine Learning (cs.LG) Anh Nguyen, Alexey Dosovitskiy, Jason Yosinski, Thomas Brox, Jeff Clune (Submitted on 30 May 2016 (v1), last revised 23 Nov 2016 (this version, v5)) Cornell Universtiy Llibrary.]

The 2nd method, the ‘Penrose-Hameroff Orch Or Theory’, Synthesizing Neuronetworks utilizing both biological and physics research is preferred by this research journalist, per reviewed with certainty, and “stood the test of time”:

“Microtubules (MTs) are cylindrical protein filaments that play crucial roles in eukaryotic cell functions. They are particularly important in both axons and dendrites of neurons, hence their prominence in biophysical models of consciousness.

“The overview reveals the many interesting biophysical and biochemical properties of microtubules, especially their electrostatic and conductive behavior.

“The building block of microtubules, the heterodimer of alpha and beta tubulin has been well characterized crystallographically, which allowed the construction of atomic-level models of tubulin and microtubules. These models reveal complex electrostatic properties of microtubules, molecular mechanics, structural stability, hydrogen-bond interactions as well as conductive properties in ionic solutions.

These exciting revelations were report on the recent experimental results, which the effects MTs, tubulin dimers have on ionic solution’s AC conductance. Using a microelectrode system, we have measured the AC conductivity and capacitance in a number of tubulin and microtubule solutions between 1 kHz and 1 MHz range of electric field frequencies.

These real to Human life measurements “at 42 nM, MTs in a low ionic solution increase solution conductance by 6% at 100 kHz, were found to effect increases as the concentration of MTs increases. We model the possibility that this effect is due to ions being able to use MTs as a low-resistance cable as predicted in earlier publications i.e Penrose Hameroff et al.

“Conversely, tubulin dimers decrease solution conductance by 5% at 100 kHz under similar conditions indicating that a transformation from depolymerized to polymerized tubulin corresponds to an insulator-conductor transition with major implications for cell division and the function of neurons.

“These effects were modeled as being due to tubulin attracting counter-ion charges and lowering their mobility when depolymerized and directing their flows when polymerized. We also report the results of AC capacitance measurements under similar conditions.

“MTs show their ability to modulate the buffer solution’s electric conductance and capacitance and act as low resistance pathways for electric ions. This has significant implications for biological information processing, especially in neurons, and for intracellular electrical communication in general.

“A memristor is an electrical component that limits or regulates the flow of electrical current in a circuit and remembers the amount of charge that has previously flowed through it. Memristors are important because they are non-volatile, meaning that they retain memory without power.” [WhatIs.com] [The Memristor by Brian Hayes, The first new passive circuit element since the 1830s might transform computer hardware, Computer Technology, March-April 2011, vol 99 No. 2, American Scientist]

“A particular effect observed in our experiments shows that microtubules function as memristors. Memristors represent the fourth element of the electrical circuits complementing resistors, capacitors and inductors.

“Hallmarks of memristive behavior include pinched and frequency-dependent I-V hysteresis loops and most importantly, a functional dependence of the magnetic flux passing through an ideal memristor on its electrical charge.

“Tuszynski provides both theoretical and experimental evidence that microtubules act according to the definition of a memeristor. Their biophysical properties lead to pinched hysteretic I-V dependence as well a classic dependence of magnetic flux on charge. Based on the information about the structure of microtubules Tuszynski gave an estimate of microtubule memristance and discuss its significance for neuroscience.  [256 Microtubules as Subcellular Memristors: Modeling and Measuring Electrostatic and Conductive Properties of Microtubules. Jack A. Tuszynski (Physics; Oncology, University of Alberta, Edmonton AB,, Edmonton/Alberta Canada)] [Jack A. Tuszynski1,2,3 1. Department of Oncology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 1Z2, Canada 2. Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 1Z2, Canada 3. Politecnico di Torino -Department of Mechani- cal and Aerospace Engineering, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, IT-10128, Torino, Italy.]

Living cells are organized by cytoskeletons with a fundamental role of microtubules. The mechanisms of organization are as neuron dendrite, cell body and axon endoskeletons, once thought to be the only function of the cytoskeletons. Now scientists know the microtubule cytoskeletons transmit message signals and collect memory.

Microtubules also act as transducers and convert Electrical Energy within the Neurons to oscillating Electric Fields. [Electric field around microtubules, by Jiřı́ Pokorný František Jelı́nek ViktorTrkal Bioelectrochemistry and Bioenergetics, Volume 45, Issue 2, May 1998, Pages 239-245]Fundamentally, transducers are materials that expand and contract when exposed to an electrical signal, or alternately produce electricity when compressed or pulled in tension.

“The transducer phenomenon was originally observed by Pierre and Jacques Curie with quartz piezo-electroscope which took advantage of the piezo-electric effect for the measurement of rays emitted from Radium.

“The design of the ultrasonic components is very complex and usually requires the use of special programs which can be used to predict the frequency of vibration of a particular design as well as how much stress can be expected.

An electric hand-held therapeutic vibrator for muscle strain is similar. When the vibrator is turned on the electric current is converted to machine vibrations and vibration waves. [Q & A. answer by Miranda Marcus, Applications Engineer at EWI specializing in Plastic Joining, Dec 28, 2015 Quora]

“Abstract: This report focuses on vibration energy harvesting using electrostatic converters. It synthesizes the various works carried out on electrostatic devices, from concepts, models and up to prototypes, and covers both standard (electret-free) and electret-based electrostatic vibration energy harvesters (VEH).

The vibrations in the microtubules which are polar and are accompanied by polarization waves. Oscillating electric field generated around microtubules can be as high as 105 Vm−1 and may have an important role in information system and mass transport in living cells. Energy from hydrolysis of guanosine triphosphate (GTP) stored in microtubules can excite the vibrations above thermodynamic equilibrium level.

Vibratory / oscillatory energy must be gathered or harvested for perception, integration and/or transmission after conversion to vibration waves from electric current.

“For commercial vibration energy harvesting in everyday life, there are sensors, vibration energy harvesters (VEH) and electrostatic converters, which are complicated devices with global advantages and drawbacks that convert mechanical power back into electricity, which require power management circuits with power conversion, low consumption electronics, mechanics and so on.

These circuits are extremely important as they are the only way to turn Vibration Energy Harvesting (VEH) output powers into viable supply sources for electronic devices. [Electrostatic Conversion for Vibration Energy Harvesting S. Boisseau, G. Despesse, B. Ahmed Seddik LETI, CEA, Minatec Campus, Grenoble, France]

Imagine how magnificent human brain microtubule were Created.

·  1st microtubule cytoskeletons support neuron cell anatomical structure

· 2nd memristors are gate keepers separating-out preferred signals and them directing them appropriately

· 3rd act as transducers within the human brain neuron cells for conversion of electric current to vibratory / oscillatory energetic waves which account for EEG waves measured during brain wave medical examination

· Energy Wave ‘language’ enabling instant transmission of signals and messages to other internal and external body parts

· 4th conversion back again to electric energy current ‘language’ for further propagation along the NeruoNetwork Pathway.

Consciousness resides, according to Stuart and British physicist Sir Roger Penrose, in the microtubules of the brain cells, which are the primary sites of quantum processing.  Upon death, this information, called the Soul, is released from your body, meaning that your consciousness goes with the Soul.

Scientists have argued that Human Consciousness Experience is the result of quantum gravity effects in these microtubules, a theory which they dubbed Penrose-Hameroff Orchestrated Objective Reduction (Orch-OR), advocated by this research journalist.

Consciousness, or at least proto-consciousness is theorized by Dr Penrose and Hameroff to be a fundamental property of the universe, present even at the first moment of the universe during the Big Bang. “In one such scheme proto-conscious experience is a basic property of physical reality accessible to a quantum process associated with brain activity.”

Our souls are constructed from the very fabric of the universe and may have existed since the beginning of time.  Our brains are just receivers and amplifiers for the proto-consciousness that is intrinsic to the fabric of space-time.

Human Consciousness appears to be non-material and live-on as the Soul, after the death of your physical body in concurrence with Einstein theory that Energy never dies and can only be converted to another form and live forever.

Now to the soft science.

In science and philosophy, a paradigm is a distinct set of concepts or thought patterns, including theories, research methods, postulates, and standards for what constitutes legitimate contributions to a field. [Paradigm definition from Oxford English Dictionary Online]

In a manner of speaking, the ‘Love Paradigm’ is realized when a couple ‘syncs their microtubule memristors’.

COMMUNICATION

“Although language must have evolved in the setting of face-to-face communication, human inventiveness has long sought ways to transcend the limitations of time and space that physical copresence imposes.

“The most important technological development in this quest was the invention of word syllabic systems of writing, probably in Mesopotamia around 4000 years ago. Phonogramic representational systems made it possible transform the ephemera of speech into a tangible record that exists independent of the person who generated it –a development with profound consequences at both the individual and he societal level (Goody, 1977).

“Writing systems, combined with more recently invented technologies for recording, transmitting and reproducing signals, make it possible to transmit a dizzying variety of materials (data, text, graphics, facsimile, to name only a few) over virtually limitless distances.

“A species’ survival depends critically upon its ability to communicate effectively, and the quality of its social life is determined in large measure by how and what it can communicate.

“Human social life as it is presently constituted is predicated upon an extraordinary level of communicative virtuosity– a level of virtuosity that the uniquely human ability to use language confers. Absent this, our lives would be quite different.  [The Psychology of Verbal Communication by  Robert M. Krauss Columbia University, unedited version, International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences (edited by N. Smelser & P. Baltes). publication in 2002]

“Interpersonal communication style is the manner in which one communicates. It includes the way one interacts to create expectations for future behavior on the part of both participants.

“Communication is the transmission of information and meaning from one individual to another. The communication process, whether verbal or nonverbal, involves a sender and a receiver. Whether we realize it or not, people are constantly shaping our behavior by the ongoing style they use as they talk to us.

Robert Norton developed 9 specific communicator styles typically used in the communication process that inform the nature of the relationship between communicators. These styles have been studied extensively in several organizations to assess communication satisfaction and commitment.

1. Dominant communication style. speaking frequently, strongly, in a dominating and take-charge manner, communicative dominance.

2. Dramatic communication style. merge both physical and verbal techniques to create a performance of the message, storytelling, jokes, hyperboles.

3. Contentious communication style. Argumentative, not afraid to challenge others, feel the need to defend themselves

4. Animated communication style. reveal thoughts and emotions through body language more than through verbal communication.

5. Impression-leaving communication style. relies heavily on the impression formed of the sender by the receiver. People who use this style deliver messages in a manner that is unique and easy for receivers to differentiate from other communication partners.

6. Relaxed communication style. relaxed style appear calm, do not appear anxious and can make others feel comfortable.

7. Attentive communication style. good listener and lets communication partners know they are being heard. Body language such as eye contact and nodding let communication partners know that the attentive communicator is listening.

8. Open communication style. express their thoughts and emotions and will generally let others know how they feel, reveal personal information with little regard to the potential outcome.

9. Friendly communication style. have a positive effect on their communication partners. This effect results in people seeking interaction with them. Friendly communicators use both body language and verbal communication to reinforce the self-image of others by showing them that they attract people who are friendly. This style of communication is also characterized by the recognition of the accomplishments and value of communication partners.

“Communication styles are an essential factor in studying interpersonal communication. Communicators may use different communication styles in different situations but generally rely on a particular style because they are comfortable using it. Factors affecting communication style include the relationship of the communication partners, social norms, and the specific organizational situation.

References:

Coeling, H. V., & Cukr, P. L. (2000). Communication styles that promote perceptions of collaboration, quality, and nurse satisfaction. Journal of Nursing Care Quality, 14(2), 63-74.

Norton, R. (1983). Communicator style: Theory, applications, and measures. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.

Rehling, L. (2004). Improving teamwork through awareness of conversational styles. Business Communication Quarterly, 67(4), 475-482.

[Interpersonal Communication Styles, Psychology Research and Reference]

“Like painting or singing, communication in relationships is an art which requires skills that need practice. If you would like to improve communication in your relationships, remember the following 3 things.

1.” Unhealthy communication starts with negative thoughts or difficult emotions. Words are only the result of those thoughts and emotions. So be mindful of what is going through your mind when you talk with someone. Try to understand and communicate your emotions.

2.” Be aware of your inner lens which is responsible for how you decode a message. Paraphrasing is a great tool when you are unsure whether what you have understood is what the other person was trying to say. Simply use your own words to summarize how you understood the message.

3.” Listening is the better skill to practice than talking. Focus on your friend’s facial expression as they tell a story. Try to listen without thinking of what to say next. And try not to judge what you hear.

“You will see your relationships improve with these 3simple steps. Why? Because good communication is a sign of appreciation.

“Human relationships develop through nonverbal and verbal interpersonal communication. In Psychology Today, Randi Kreger reports that nonverbal interpersonal communication like body language may communicate 93 % of your attitudes and beliefs, suggesting that others tend to believe your nonverbal communication if your verbal messages contradict them.

“Interpersonal communication includes communication that occurs with your words and through your tone of voice, posture and facial expressions.

“Columbia University online database relates that verbal communication is for precise messages. Non-verbal communication involves any other information that you send and receive from others including your body language, eye contact or how you say a message.

“Emotional intelligence affects your competence in personal and social situations. According to the U.N.I. Business website, you are emotionally intelligent if you are self-aware and can accurately assess your strengths or limit your actions in a self-confident way. Emotional intelligence affects your social competence because it involves your ability to develop healthy relationships, and to perceive and interpret other people’s emotions.

“Trust is established through interpersonal communication. Verbal and nonverbal interpersonal communication can help gauge a person’s trustworthiness. Consistent behavior encourages trust, because it suggests the same behavior will occur in the future. Cooperate and draw attention to the qualities you have in common with others to help develop trust.

“Tim Borchers in “Functions of Interpersonal Communication” interpersonal communication can help you understand “relationship messages.” These messages include the way that you say things to another person and go deeper than the literal surface-level meanings of words.

“Communication with  others can also help you establish your own identity, because it can help define the role you play in a relationship and the image of yourself that you present publicly.

“According to Altman and Taylor’s Theory of Relational Development there are 4 relational stages.

1. public behavior and interaction communicates verbal and nonverbal messages

2. Friendship occurs when you reveal private details about your personality and develop more trust and willingness to communicate.

3. Close friendships or romantic relationships occur in the third stage, as trust and willingness to communicate increase for both people.

4. The fourth stage may not require as much verbal interpersonal communication as prior stages. Nonverbal interpersonal communication may characterize the fourth stage, because you can reliably interpret the feelings and behavior of others in this stage.  [Interpersonal Communication & Human Relationships by Miguel Cavazos, June 13, 2017, Healthfully]

BELONINGNESS

“A hypothesized need to form and maintain strong, stable interpersonal relationships is evaluated in light of the empirical literature.

“The need is for frequent, nonaversive interactions within an ongoing relational bond. Consistent with the Belongingness Hypothesis, people form social attachments readily under most conditions and resist the dissolution of existing bonds.

“Belongingness appears to have multiple and strong effects on emotional patterns and on cognitive processes.

‘Attachmentlessness’ “Lack of attachments is linked to a variety of ill effects on health, adjustment, and well-being.

“Other evidence, such as that concerning satiation, substitution, and behavioral consequences, is likewise consistent with the Belongingness Hypothesis motivation.

“Several seeming counterexamples turned out not to disconfirm the hypothesis. Existing evidence supports the hypothesis that the need to belong is a powerful, fundamental, and extremely pervasive motivation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved) [The need to belong: desire for interpersonal attachments as a fundamental human motivation, Baumeister RF1, Leary MR. Psychol Bull. 1995 May;117(3):497-529.]

“In the old Tibetan monasteries we had little tricks i.e. thinking like attachment to non-attachment’ and the ‘negative side of the positivity’ or the opponent of the opponent of the positivity’.

“Attachment to Attachmentlessness was concluded non-attachment. Though Humans might feel a need to seek Attachmentlessness, it does not affect and satisfy the mind the way Attachment affects the mind.

“Attachmentlessness may cause unfulfillment and that is not a quirky, idiosyncratic form of attachment, but simply non-attachment. The main point is the effect on the mind. Attachmentlessness is a Negative Mental Effect.  [Transforming Negativities by Jewel Heart Transcript by Kayabje Gehlek Pinpoche who taught at Jewel Heart, fist edition 1994]

“According to Baumeister and Leary’s (1995) belonginess theory, individuals have an evolved, and robust, need for closeness, and social belonging.

“This theory suggests that natural selection favored individuals who maintained close bonds with groups because this attachment provided security and facilitated reproduction. Individuals, thus, who are ostracized experience intense psychological distress (Sommer, Williams, Ciarroco & Baumeister, 2001; Williams, Shore, & Grahe, 1998). These unpleasant emotions motivate the individual to repair the faulty relationships or encourage them to develop new, more rewarding relationships.

“Self-esteem, according to the sociometer hypothesis (Leary, Tambor, Terdal, & Downs, 1995), provides individuals with a psychological mechanism to gauge their level of social acceptance. For instance, when individuals receive adverse feedback regarding their interpersonal skills, they report a decline in self-esteem (Leary, Haupt, Strausser, & Chokel, 1998).

References
[Baumeister, R.F., & Leary, M.R. (1995). The need to belong: Desire for interpersonal attachments as a fundamental human emotion. Psychological
Bulletin, 117, 497-529.
[Leary, M. R., Tambor, E. S., Terdal, S. K., & Downs, D. L. (1995). Self-esteem as an interpersonal monitor: The sociometer hypothesis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 68, 518–530.
[Leary, M. R., Haupt, A. L., Strausser, K. S., & Chokel, J. T. (1998). Calibrating the sociometer: The relationship between interpersonal appraisals and the state self-esteem. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 1290–1299.
[Sommer, K.L., Williams, K.D., Ciarocco, N.J., & Baumeister, R.F. (2001). When silence speaks louder than words: Exploration into the intrapsychic and interpersonal consequences of social ostracism. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 23, 225-243.
[Williams, K.D., Shore, W.J., & Grahe, J.E. (1998). The silent treatment: Perceptions of its behaviors and associated feelings. Group Processes and
Intergroup Relations, 1, 117-141. [PschloPedia, by Nicholas Duck , Apr 24 2008]

THE NATURE OF INTERPERSONAL FIELDS

“In The Field Concept in ‘Physics Faraday’s Fields’ 1821, Michael Faraday began a series of experiments suggesting that the results of previous experiments on electricity and on magnetism could be incorporated within a single unified theory.

“Faraday demonstrated that (1) a changing magnetic field can create an electric current, and (2) a changing electric current can create another electric current. These findings, together with an earlier finding that (3) a steady electric current can produce a magnetic field, suggested a possible unified theory of electricity, magnetism, and possibly light-a theory that was not easily reconciled within the old physics.

“Faraday pondered on the idea of action at a distance, and there grew in his mind the idea that, surrounding a magnet or charged body, there was an invisible,

material “sea,” an entity that exists in space, rather like the waves that spread out from a stone thrown into a pond. (Silver, 998, p. 91)

Enter Biophysics: “James Clerk Maxwell summarized Maxwell’s Equations In 1864, the existing knowledge of “electromagnetism” In differential equations that provided a quantitative expression of electric and magnetic fields. Einstein and Infeld (193X).

“Paradigms and their Convergences 64, characterized Maxwell’s equations as “the most important event in physics since Newton’s time, not only because of their wealth of content, but also because they form a pattern for a new type of law … representing the structure of the field” (p. 143; emphasis added).

“From these equations, Maxwell predicted that electromagnetic waves should travel through space at the speed of light (c), and this prediction was confirmed by Hertz in 1888.

“The excitement generated by the concept of an invisible and immaterial “force field” determining the interactions among material objects extended well beyond the discipline of physics.

The Field Concept in Psychology, the Psychological Proponents of Field Theory within experimental psychology and the field-theoretical approach to understanding human behavior was championed by the influential Gestalt school of thought (Koffka, 1935; Kohler, 1929; Wertheimer, 1912).

“This approach was extended to social psychology by Kurt Lewin (1939). J. R. Kantor (1924-1926) had earlier founded his school of interbehavioral psychology, which was heavily influenced by the field-theoretical ideas of the physics of his day (Kantor, 1953).

“The field-theoretical perspective in physics was also highly influential in the theoretical formulations of Harry Stack Sullivan (1940), whose interpersonal theory of psychiatry eventually provided the conceptual foundation for the interpersonal paradigm (Wiggins & Trobst, 1999).

“The influence of physical field theory on psychological theorizing was used to make a distinction between “Interactionism” and “Interpersonalism.” The interactionist perspective, as presented by Lewin (1946), focuses on the manner in which behavior is determined by the interaction between a person and the environment in which the person is situated: B = f(P, E).

“In its modern form, this perspective assesses the relative contributions of person and situation by calculating the relative variance contributions to behavior of person, situation, and the statistical interaction of person and situation (Endler, 1975).

“Contemporary interactionism is based on an analysis-of-variance model for conducting empirical research, and as such does not claim to be a theoretical perspective (Endler, 1983). The interpersonalist perspective, as presented by Sullivan (1953a), focuses on the interrelation between two persons within a common environment: B = f [E(P 1 H P )]. Sullivan’s form of radical interpersonalism.

“A discrete individual is separate from others and from a shared social environment. Theorists within the interpersonal paradigm have attempted to operationalize Sullivan’s view of personality in ways that avoid this individualistic bias by defining personality as: “nothing more (or less) than the patterned regularities that may be observed in an individual’s relations with other persons, who may be real in the sense of actually being present, real but absent and hence ‘personified,’ or ‘illusory’ ” (Carson, 1969a, p. 26).

“Within Sullivan’s radical interpersonalism, dyadic relationships with others constitute the environment, and a person’s recurrent patterns of such relationships over time constitute his or her “personality.”

“Sullivan stated: “In extreme abstract, the theory holds that Humans come into being as persons as consequence of unnumbered interpersonal fields of force and that we manifest intelligible human processes only in such interpersonal fields” (Sullivan, 1948a, p. 3; emphasis added).

“Thus personality was for Sullivan (1948a) “the hypothetical entity which we posit to account for interpersonal fields” (p. 6).

“In addition to emphasizing dyadic interpersonal force fields, Sullivan placed a heavy emphasis upon the cultural and societal contexts in which these interactions occur, in light of the new perspectives on the relation between the individual and society that were emerging in the fields of psychiatry, sociology, and cultural anthropology during the 1920s and 1930s.

“Although acknowledging the discoveries of Freud (e.g., Breuer & Freud, 1893-1895) as providing the initial impetus for his own investigations, Sullivan (1953b, pp. 16-26) also acknowledged the influence of three additional “tributaries” outside the psychoanalytic tradition: (1) the emphasis upon the integrated psychobiological individual as the central unit of study (Meyer, 1907; White, 1922); (2) the emphasis upon the reflected appraisals of significant others as determinants of the individual’s self-view (Cooley, 1930; Mead, 1934); and (3) the emphases upon the potency of culture in shaping individual lives (Benedict, 1934; Lapsley, 1999; Sullivan, 1948b) and upon the importance of language within both interpersonal and cultural contexts (Sapir, 1935).

“Among the most valuable features of the circumplex model is the opportunity it provides for interpreting interpersonal variables with reference to the geometric properties of a circle (LaForge et aI., 1954). The variables of traditional multiscale inventories are typically displayed as “factor lists” (Hogan, 1983), in which the ordering and interrelations among variables lack both conceptual and interpretive significance.

“The field-theoretical perspective in physics influenced the theoretical formulations of Harry Stack Sullivan, whose interpersonal theory of psychiatry eventually provided the conceptual foundation for the interpersonal paradigm.

“In the 195Os, Timothy Leary and other members of the Kaiser Foundation research group in Oakland, California, attempted to operationalize Sullivan’s ideas with reference to the coding of interpersonal interactions among patients in psychotherapy groups. The system that emerged identified an array of interpersonal behaviors that were ordered in circular fashion around the two coordinates of power and affiliation.

“Leary’s diagnosis launched the interpersonal paradigm in personality assessment. As Gurtman (1992) has emphasized, the interpersonal circumplex itself functions as a nomological net within which the construct validity of other interpersonal measures may be evaluated.

“The circumplex has provided both a conceptual and a computational model of interpersonal assessment. In conceptualization, the model may be used to describe the manner in which interpersonal behavior is influenced by the underlying cord mates of agency and communion.

“In computation, the model permits the rigorous analysis of patterns of both test and person variable~ in psychdiagnostic work. Although once considered an “underground movement” running counter to the mainstream, the interpersonal paradigm of personality assessment must now be counted among the major paradigms on the contemporary scene. [The Interpersonal Paradigm Scientific psychiatry has to be defined as the study of interpersonal relations, and this end calls for the use of the kind of conceptual framework that we now call field theory. -SULLIVAN (1953b, p. 368)]

SCIENCE OF LOVE

Interpersonal love requires that love types should be on the same page. Human Brain Love NeuroNetworks must synchronize.

“Brain scanning techniques such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have been used to investigate brain regions that seem to be involved in producing the human experience of love. (Semir Zeki and Andreas Bartels). Foci in the media insula, which the brain associates with instinct, and part of the anterior cingulate cortex, which is associated with feelings of euphoria were implicated (Semir Zeki and Andreas Bartels).

“Ortigue et al. found that an unconscious love prime, or mention, of the name of a romantic partner activated similar brain regions i.e. when subjects were consciously aware of seeing partners’ faces. Subliminal priming with either a beloved’s name or face activated emotion and motivational brain regions: caudate nucleus, insula, bilateral fusiform regions, para-hippocampal gyrus, right angular gyrus, occipital cortex, and cerebellum.”

“The love prime evoked most activation in bilateral angular gyri and bilateral fusiform regions.

It follows, that love prime activation of brain areas associated, with the name prime or vision of God, during prayer, meditation and worship made perfect sense to this essayist (IMHSMO).

The following depicts a summary of the love categories and their neurochemicals mediators and hormones. 89. (modified with 4.)

Love Categories:

1. Attachment ← oxytocin, vasopressin

2. Lust ← Testosterone, Estrogen

3. Attraction, Loss of appetite and sleep ← Dopamine, Norepinephrine, Serotonin, Nerve Growth Factor    89.

4. “The Dopamine system, in all probability, is neurochemically  responsible for the pursuit of the existential meaning of our lives and our God Attachment: why we believe, act and feel the way we feel about God.  143.

Dr. Helen Fisher Rutgers University believes that attachments formed between individuals “in love” are caused by changes in the brain involving a group of neurotransmitters called mono-amines, i.e. dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin.

Lust is governed by testosterone and estrogen. Attachment is governed by the neurotransmitters oxytocin and vasopressin.  107. 108. 109. 110. 111.112. 113. 114. 115. 116. 117. 118. 119. 120. 121. 122. 123.

“Independent studies have found that long-term attraction and romantic love are more likely to occur when the attributes that generate attraction in general, together with certain social factors and circumstances that spark passion, are particularly strong.”

“11 features that together provide a decent indicator of who you will click with over the long term (Aron, et al. 1989):

1. Similarity. The similarity of people’s belief sets and, to a lesser extent, the similarity of their personality traits and ways of thinking.

2. Propinquity. Familiarity with the other, which can be caused by spending time together, living near the other, thinking about the other, or anticipating interaction with the other.

3. Desirable Characteristics. Outer physical appearance that is found desirable and, to a lesser extent, desirable personality traits.

4. Reciprocal Liking. When the other person is attracted to you or likes you, that can increase your own liking.

5. Social Influences. The potential union satisfying general social norms, and acceptance of the potential union within one’s social network, can contribute to people falling in love. Or, if a union does not satisfy general social norms or is not accepted by one’s social network, this can result in people falling out of love.

6. Filling Needs. If a person can fulfill needs for companionship, love, sex, or mating, there is a greater chance that the other person will fall in love with him or her.

7. Arousal/Unusualness. Being in an unusual or arousing environment can spark passion, even if the environment is perceived as dangerous or spooky (Dutton & Aron, 1974).

8. Specific Cues. A particular feature of the other may spark a particularly strong attraction; for instance, parts of their body or facial features.

9. Readiness. The more you want to be in a relationship, the lower your self-esteem and the more likely you are to fall in love.

10. Isolation. Spending time alone with another person can contribute to a development of passion.

11. Mystery. Some degree of mystery surrounding the other person, as well as uncertainty about what the other person thinks or feels, or when he or she may initiate contact, can also contribute to passion.”

“The factors that determine whether people should connect romantically are circumstantial or a result of how people behave in courtships and relationships.

“While it may be possible for modern technology to determine partner matches by relying not just on personality, but also on people’s particular circumstances, no such algorithm can provide us with the skills necessary to maintain a relationship that is both healthy and exciting.

“These types of relationship skills may need to be acquired through long-term practice and training.

References

1.Aron A, Dutton DG, Aron, EN, Iverson, A. (1989) “Experiences of Falling in Love”, Journal of Social and Personal Relationships August 6, 3: 243-257.

2.Dutton, D.G., & Aron, A.P. (1974). “Some Evidence for Heightened Sexual Attraction Under Conditions of High Anxiety”, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 30 (4), 510-517.

3.Joel S, Eastwick, P, Finkel, E. “Is Romantic Desire Predictable? Machine Learning Applied to Initial Romantic Attraction,” Psychological Science. Published online August 30, 2017.

[11 Ways to Predict Romantic Attraction The Mysteries of Love by Berit Brogaard D.M.Sci., Ph.D. Sep 27, 2017, Psychology Today]

“The actual process of the ‘attraction paradigm’ is more often a combination of multiple personal motives, semi-random input from a wide variety of sources, sheer luck, and semi-delusional tenacity.” [ Byrne, D. (1997). An Overview (and Underview) of Research and Theory within the Attraction Paradigm. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 14(3), 417–431]

TYPES of THINKING

Interpersonal relationships require thinking types should be on the same frequency, ‘like minded’. Human NeuroNetworks must harmonize. James Kelly 2015 soundly classified the Types of Thinking, which briefly follow:

1. Creative- ability to conceive new and innovative ideas. Breaking from established thought, theories rules and procedures. Put thoghts together in new and imaginative ways

2. Analytical – ability to separate the whole into basic parts and examine the parts effect on the whole

3. Critical – ability to carefully evaluated and judge and determine authenticity, accuracy, worth, validity, value

4. Concrete – ability to comprehend and apply factual knowledge, not theoretical. Superficial, literal basic

5. Abstract – ability to use concepts to make and understand generalizations, hidden meaning application to understand theories and possibilities

6. Divergent – us creative ideas to explore ways to make solutions work

7. Convergent – organize different parts and perspectives of a topic to find a single answer

8. Sequential (linear) – process information in orderly manner, algorithmic

9. Holistic (nonlinear) – get the big picture and use components to understand large system [Types of Thinking, James Kelly, 2015, The Peak Performance Center]

10. Spiritual Thinking must agreeably oscillate for successful, lasting Interpersonal Relationships. {{{mbmsrmd addition to Kelly 9. Types}}}

The signals for Human spirituality are incorporated and are Neurotheologically Neuronetworked with spiritual, religious, meditation, faith and belief practices, experiences, realities and mindfulness, consciously or not-consciously, encoded intrinsically within the 55 anatomical spaces, a sacred realm addressed and an awareness moved intellectually and/or emotionally.

“Contemplation, prayer, meditation, singing, listening and reflection, when there is conscious awareness-of or response-to this dimension.

“Finally, spirituality can be defined as a discrete experience which may include diffusion of the mind, loss of ego boundaries and a change in orientation from self towards or beyond the material world.

“The experience usually is willful. Ecstatic experiences are this type, but experience may be much less intense and more prolonged.[Conceptualizing spirituality for medical research and health service provision by Michael B King 1 and Harold G Koenig2, BMC Health Serv Res. 2009 Jul 13.]

African-American Spirituality has involved evolutionary exemplary, internal, external, consoling, born-again and life changing dimensions. African-American Spirituality was found both culturally and globally prominent.  49.

Another investigation found that Spirituality is a significant African-American (AA) cultural experience and a belief that influences improved health and wellness behaviors of African-Americans, significantly.  50.

Other research observed that African American Spirituality (AAS) provided the strength to cope with disease; the need to care for others with illness and need to receive care by professionals.

AA culture believes that God is the healer and in control of all humans and the universe; God assists in decision-making; and closeness to God is vitally important.

Spiritual domains are beliefs, functions and social supports. Culturally appropriate, evidence-based nursing care should include Spiritually based interventions that acknowledge the significance of God as a therapeutic measure, the research further concluded.  51.

Following lengthy contemplation, this research journalist began to consider that Eutopia is neither a “good”, “not”, unknown or any other geographical location, but a Spiritual Belief Mindset or Spirituality.

Intensive investigation into feel good neurochemistry was the core of Spirituality Dopamine levels rise in response to rewarding stimuli, such as sex, drugs, alcohol and food.  The neurochemical changes reflect rewards, motivation, and other concepts in the brain.

Ancient people realized that the pleasant sweet taste of foods, spiced with sugar, also made them feel good. Naturally occurring single molecule glucose, fructose and galactose, are called monosaccharides. Sucrose, maltose and lactose are disaccharides formed from 2 monosaccharide molecules.

Researchers learned that Dopamine levels rise in response to natural and artificial sweetener rewarding stimuli. “McCutcheon measured fluctuations in levels of the neurotransmitter dopamine evoked by food pellets containing either sucrose or saccharin.”

“In this experiment, the dopamine system responded differently to the two substances, with sucrose (natural disaccharide) producing a larger release of the neurotransmitter, dopamine, compared to an artificial sweetener after several days of consuming both.  52. 53.

Sugar highs and the association of feeling good following the ingestion of sweetened foods are well known effects from natural sweeteners all the way back to ancient times. Nowadays, parents beware children’s sugar high before bedtime, the result of Dopamine expression.

But how do intrinsic or inborn, extrinsic or acquired Religious and/or Spiritual Beliefs achieve similar Dopamine neurochemical surges in response to rewarding stimuli, like sugar, and resultant association of feeling good and religious and/or Spirituality highs?

The answer is that Dopamine neurochemical surges, with resultant good feeling and Spirituality and/or religious highs, are the state of Eutopian Mentality.

“As for utopia, it really is up to us. Utopia, like happiness or heaven, is in our minds. We can cultivate it or neglect it.”  1.  The Mother Emanuel African Methodist Episcopal Church in Charleston, SC certainly cultivated the Eutopian Mentality. Spirituality was indeed their mind set. Spirituality, an energy force, is any experience that brings that experience into contact with God or another other higher power of human preference.  2.

Spirituality is the human mind’s most important companion and self-transcendence is one of the mind’s important escorts to God or, for some, another higher power. Righteous Spirituality is the human beings most important bodyguard and has been inherited, as such, for self-preservation among other human essentials (IMHSMO).

Spirituality is housed in all Neurotheological Neuronetworks and compartmentalizes spiritual, religious, meditation, faith and belief practices, experiences, realities and mindfulness, consciously or not-consciously, encoded intrinsically within the 55 anatomical spaces, a sacred realm and an awareness moved intellectually and/or emotionally outside the self.

Self-transcendence is the uniting interconnection of the human mind’s Spirituality with the Holly Spirit or higher power spirit. Self-transcendental Spirituality is the signature of most Spiritual practices.  3.

The resultant neurochemical output from activating neurochemicals sets the selection tone for morality, good behavior, righteousness, holiness and obedience to God.

Every human has Spirituality, good, bad, positive or negative. Positive Spirituality is a human choice. It promotes better human health and wellness and, therefore, improved survival for responsive humans.

Homo sapien, the anatomical modern human, who first stood on 2 feet, first evolved 200,000 years ago. The first anatomical modern human, who evolved with the potential for Eutopian Mentality was Adam (IMHSMallegoicalO).

Eutopian Mentality is the neurochemical-energetic-transmitter nervous system that facilitated the Natural Selection and survival of Homo sapien-sapiens, Adam and Eve, allegorically, with modern human cognitive behavior, “heart and mind in His likeness” adapted and evolved 50,000 to 70,000 years ago.

Eutopian Mentality is also known as our “heart and mind created in the likeness of God,” human religious cognition and Spirituality belief cognition. Eutopian Mentality is a neurochemical system comprised of “Moral Molecules” that activate output selection action brain nuclei located in organized interconnected cerebral structures of the brain that control actions and behaviors.

Eutopian Mentality is a mental state of mindful duty bound shoulds…. should do this, should do that and many other should dos.

(1) Spirituality can be quantified by psychometric measurements;

(2) the underlying tendency to Spirituality is partially heritable;

(3) part or all of this heritability can be attributed to the gene VMAT2;

(4) this gene acts by altering monoamine levels; and

(5) Spiritual individuals are favored by natural selection because they are provided with an innate sense of optimism, the latter producing positive effects at either a physical or psychological level.  4.

Hamer’s critics argued, while VMAT2 contributed somewhat to Spirituality, quantification might not be equivalent to Hamer’s estimations. Hamer’s research continues enthusiastically. [See reference: EUTOPIA, WHISTLE WHILE YOU WORK by Micheal B. Minix, Sr., M.D., July 1, 2015]

TEMPERAMENT

Effective interpersonal relationships call for similar Temperament Types, which should be synched with the same oscillations.

“In psychology, temperament broadly refers to consistent individual differences in behavior that are biologically based and are relatively independent of learning, system of values and attitudes. Some researchers point to association of temperament with formal dynamical features of behavior, such as energetic aspects, plasticity, sensitivity to specific reinforcers and emotionality.[1]

“Temperament traits (such as Neuroticism, Sociability, Impulsivity, etc.) remain its distinct patterns in behavior throughout adulthood but they are most noticeable and most studied in children. Babies are typically described by temperament, but longitudinal research in the 1920s began to establish temperament as something which is stable across the lifespan.[2]

“Although a broad definition of temperament is agreed upon, many classification schemes for temperament have been developed, and there is no consensus.[3][4]

Historically, the concept of temperament (originally “temperamentums” in Latin means “mixtures”) was a part of the theory of the four humors, with their corresponding four temperaments.

“Philosophers, psychologists, psychiatrists and psycho-physiologists historically explored temperaments from very early times of psychological science, with theories proposed by Immanuel Kant, Hermann Lotze , Ivan Pavlov, Carl Jung, Gerardus Heymans among others.

Moe recently, scientists seeking evidence of a biological basis of personality have further examined the relationship between temperament and neurotransmitter systems[5][4][6][7] and character (defined in this context as developmental aspects of personality). However, biological correlations have proven hard to confirm.[8] 32. [Assessing the continuum between temperament and affective illness: psychiatric and mathematical perspectives. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2018;373(1744):20170168.]

“Abstract:  Temperament of healthy people and mental illnesses, particularly affective disorders, have been conjectured to lie along a continuum of neurobehavioural regulation.

“Understanding the nature of this continuum may better inform the construction of taxonomies for both categories of behavior. Both temperament and mental illness refer to patterns of behavior that manifest over long time scales (weeks to years) and they appear to share many underlying neuroregulatory systems.

“This continuum is discussed from the perspectives of nonlinear dynamical systems theory, neurobiology and psychiatry as applied to understanding such multiscale time-series behavior. Particular emphasis is given to issues of generativity, fungibility, metastability, non-stationarity and contextuality.

“An alternative approach to temperament based upon functionality, and its discriminative capabilities in mental illness, was presented.

“The concept of temperament is frequently conflated by psychologists with the concept of personality. Temperament refers to neuro-chemical and biological properties of nervous systems.

“Personality, on the other hand, is a socio-cultural construction acquired through experience and learning.

“Animals and infants have temperament, but personality emerges through life experience.

Traditionally, starting from Kant, temperament traits have been broadly classified into emotionality (related to emotional regulation) and ‘activity’ (related to the energetic and orientational aspects of the regulation of activity).

“It has been conjectured that temperament and mental illness, particularly affective disorders, lie along a continuum of neurobehavioural regulation [1–5].

“For example, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) criteria for major depression of fatigue, concentration and worry are similar to the traits of endurance, plasticity and self-confidence, as well as neuroticism.

“Second, associations have been found between certain forms of mental illness and particular temperament traits [9]. Nery et al. [10] have shown that some of these associations may be state-dependent effects, appearing in the presence of an illness state and reverting to baseline following remission of the illness. Third, neurobehavioural research has demonstrated significant overlap between the regulatory systems thought to be involved in affective illness and those involved in temperament. These include monoamine, acetylcholine and neuropeptide systems [11].

“The continuum should not be thought of a simple linear continuum with temperament and mental illness at opposite poles. Neurobehavioural regulatory systems are interdependent complex adaptive systems capable of expressing a broad range of (emergent) dynamics.

“It is this space of possible dynamics that forms the continuum, and temperament and mental illness occupy different regions of this space. Two metaphors might help to illuminate this idea.

More importantly, far fewer studies investigated the coupling between non-emotionality temperament traits and mental illness, although the DSM-5 considers a broad range of non-emotional symptoms: fatigue, poor attention and memory, dysfunction in sleep, appetite, psychomotor retardation, agitation, lethargy or restlessness.

“One promising model is the neurochemically inspired Functional Ensemble of Temperament (FET) model [11]. This is an extension of Rusalov’s activity-specific model of temperament [77,78]. The FET model organizes temperament traits in a 3 × 4 matrix categorized by functional aspects of human behavior [11]. The 12 components within the FET include: nine domains (traits) regulating formal functional aspects of behaviour (endurance, dynamic and orientational) each assessed in three domains (intellectual, physical and social), together with three systems related to emotionality (Neuroticism, Impulsivity and Self-confidence). Temperament is assessed using the Structure of Temperament Questionnaire [78].

“The FET model posits ensemble relationships between monoamine, acetylcholine, neuropeptide and opioid receptor systems as providing the neurobiology underlying temperament. It suggests that the continuum should be localized to the dynamics of these regulatory systems, at least based upon our current understanding. The model predicts that the presence of mental illness should result in differential effects on levels of temperament traits, akin to a spectrogram.32. [Assessing the continuum between temperament and affective illness: psychiatric and mathematical perspectives. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2018;373(1744):20170168.]

“Several psychiatrists and differential psychologists have suggested that temperament and mental illness represent varying degrees along the same continuum of neurotransmitter imbalances in neurophysiological systems of behavioral regulation.[32][33][34]

“Even though temperament and psychiatric disorders can be presented as, correspondingly, weak and strong imbalances within the same regulatory systems, it is incorrect to say that temperament is a weak degree of these disorders.

“Temperament might be a disposition to develop a mental disorder, but it should not be treated as a guaranteed marker for disorders.

References: 3. Kagan, Jerome. “Temperament”. Encyclopedia of Early Childhood Development. Encyclopedia of Early Childhood Development. Retrieved 17 March 2018.

7. Trofimova, IN (2018). “Functionality vs dimensionality in psychological taxonomies, and a puzzle of emotional valence”. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 373 (1744): 20170167.

12. Rusalov, Vladimir (26 February 2018). “Functional systems theory and the activity-specific approach in psychological taxonomies”. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 373 (1744): 20170166. doi:10.1098/rstb.2017.0166. PMC 5832690. PMID 29483350.

32.  Sulis, W. (2018). “Assessing the continuum between temperament and affective illness: Psychiatric and mathematical perspectives”. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 373 (1744): 20170168. doi:10.1098/rstb.2017.0168. PMC 5832692. PMID 29483352.

33. Watson, D; Naragon-Gainey, K (2014). “Personality, Emotions, and the Emotional Disorders”. Clinical Psychological Science. 2 (4): 422–442. doi:10.1177/2167702614536162. PMC 4370336. PMID 25815243.

34. Trofimova, I.; Sulis, W (2018). “There is more to mental illness than negative affect: Comprehensive temperament profiles in depression and generalized anxiety”. BMC Psychiatry. 18 (1): 125. doi:10.1186/s12888-018-1695-x. PMC 5946468. PMID 29747614.

INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS are affected by many factors. Melding, synthesizing and synchronizing all the factors described, COMMUNICATION, BELONINGNESS, INTERPERSONAL ENERGY FIELDS, SCIENCE OF LOVE, TYPES of THINKING including Spiritual Thinking, TEMPERAMENT and other factors, which are unique to given circumstances, are extremely important for compatibility and sustainability.

 

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