Sports, Recreation and Exercise (SRE) injury statistics are concerning, especially, when approximately 50% of the SRE injuries are Preventable and Not-Accidental and especially, when when increased education about those types injuries and minor prevention policies and procedures alterations i.e. today’s modern concussion standards of care, are implemented. [13. Survey, Safe Kids Worldwide, sponsor Johnson & Johnson] [16. CDC Foundation, Partner With Us, Partnership with Johnson & Johnson to out source surveys and studies,]

Everyone knows accidents happen while participating in Sports, Recreation and Exercise. Serious Injuries and Deaths that occur during blameless circumstances are Inherent and Natural to the game, “just part of the game” that athletes play, called Accidental and Not-Preventable. An aggressive clean football tackle that fractures an arm is an Accident and Not Preventable.

“Conversely, Preventable, Not Accidental Injuries and Deaths occur at a rate of approximately 50%. Preventable, Not Accidental Injuries and Deaths of SRE Children (<18) and Youth (15-24) Athletes are secondary to severe punishments, injury mismanagements i.e. concussion, over-use exercise (Tommy Johns elbow), physical assaults (hitting Athletes), participation during severe weather conditions i.e. dangerous heat index, poor air quality and electrical storms negligent medical care, (failing to repair an injured shoulder), sexual contact with Child and Youth Athletes, to name a few that are not “just part of the game”.

A Duty of Reasonable Care to protect Child (<18) + Youth (18+) Amateur Athletes is owed by Schools, Coaches, Doctors, and other Supervisors

  • when these Athletes are under their care and control in absence of parents and guardians
  • (including post-secondary institutions, college, university)
  • while participating in Sport, Recreation and Exercise (SRE)
  • to protect them from Not-Accidental, Preventable Morbidity and Mortality
  • aka “unreasonable, concealed injuries and deaths”
  • “unreasonably increased harm and risks”

Its important to know the difference in Accidental, Not-Preventable and Not-Accidental, Preventable Harm, Risk, Morbidity and Mortality

  • A school is not liable to a plaintiff who is aware of an appreciates the risk inherent to the activity, game that is played by the rules with reasonableness
  • (aka Accidental, Not-Preventable Morbidity and Mortality)
  • However Amateur Athletes, parents, guardians do not sign-up or waive their rights for Not-Accidental, Preventable Harms, Risks Morbidity and Mortality
  • And do not sign-up or waive their rights for Potentially Criminal Harm and Risks [96. Caroline R. Krivacka & Paul Krivacka, Tort Liability of Public Schools and Institutions of Higher Learning for Accidents Occurring During School Athletic Events, 68 A.L.R.5th 663, §2[a] (1999)]

Statistical examples:
• “1.35 million kids were seen in a hospital ER in 2012 for a sports-related injury
• “1 child every 3 minutes was seen for a sports-related concussion
• “Younger athletes, ages 12 to 15, made up 47% of concussions [Michelle Healy, USA TODAY Aug. 6, 2013]

Of Course, not all of children’s SRE injuries and deaths are not classified as Not-Accidental and Preventable. Let’s drill down on the ones that are classified as Not-Accidental and Preventable.

The CDC says, “Protect the ones you love. Sports injuries are preventable

“The reality we all want is to keep our children safe and secure and help them live to their full potential.”

“Knowing how to prevent injuries from sports and recreation activities, one of the leading causes of child injury, is a step toward this goal. Taking part in sports and recreation activities is an important part of a healthy, physically active lifestyle for kids.”

“But injuries can, and do, occur. More than half of the 7 million sports and recreation-related injuries that occur each year are sustained by youth between ages 5 and 24. Thankfully, there are steps that parents can take to help make sure kids stay safe on the field, the court, or wherever they play or participate in sports and recreation activities.”
[CDC Injury Fact Sheet ]

How to Prevent Not-Accidental Child and Youth Athlete Injuries and Deaths is the Question. The burden is on the Coach. The Coach must be aware of the following preventable conditions and disorders. A few definitions must be understood.

An Amateur Athlete is a participant in the activities of Sports, Recreation, and Exercise who receives no compensation for his or her participation.

Coach-Athlete Legal Relationship. A Coach of amateur Child and Youth Athletes is a Temporary Substitute Caretaker as defined by Public Law 111-320, Child Abuse Prevention Act 1972, reauthorized in 2010 and described in the ICD-10 diagnostic codes as Y07.53.

Great Coaches, Parents and Guardians are similar. They can dramatically influence the lives of children and youth. They are teachers, guide, counselor, sponsor, advisor, and role models and teach children the values of life and living. They can mentor a child into becoming a star, role model and a hero for many generations.

Great Coaches, Parents and Guardians prepare children’s careers by emphasizing the importance of academics, education and preparation for employment opportunities and demonstrate their constant wisdom.

They earn trust with stressing child and youth centered interests, the foundation for teaching successful living and fair play. Great Coaches, Parents and Guardians develop lasting open relationships with children and youth by listening and being attentive-to children’s concerns and needs and motivate children with encouragement and support.

All must teach achievement while developing children’s characters. Frequent positive feedback during teaching builds children’s self-esteem and boosts children’s morale.

Great Coach, Parents and Guardians build good character in children when the they are good characters themselves; doing and coping with life and mistakes, finally over themselves, learning the good doing themselves, and then filled with child-centered mindfulness, reflecting, teaching and reacting from a voice of wisdom. [Mental Health “Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Program Performance and Evaluation Office, October 4, 2013]

“Nobody gets through, doing mental life a 10, on a coping scale of 1 to 10.” [TJM] “In psychology, coping means to invest one’s own conscious effort, to solve personal and interpersonal problems, in order to try to master, minimize or tolerate stress and conflict.

Doing life, while coping, generally refers to adaptive, constructive, coping strategies, which reduce stressors and adversity, the stimuli for survival. Adult years doing life, coping and then reflecting and researching are fundamental to a voice of wisdom. [Mental Health definition, “Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Program Performance and Evaluation Office, October 4, 2013]

Doctors are in the center of Sports, Recreation and Exercise. Doctors do the Athletes’ pre-participation examinations. Then they examine and treat Athlete injuries, illnesses and sexual misconduct. They clear injured Athletes to return to play.

Doctors and health care personnel are mandated reporters of Not-Accidental, Preventable Child Athlete Injuries, Physical and Emotional Maltreatment, Child Athlete Abuse, Negligence, Human Rights Violations and Child Sexual Misconduct. Failure to report these types Athlete injuries and deaths is unlawful and potentially malpractice.

the Coach must make sure that All Child and Youth Athletes have a Professional Pre-Participation SRE Examination including a heart screening EkG and Echo Cardiogram if cardiac disease exists in the examination family history.

Law enforcement must have the will to Enforce Child Athlete Protection Laws if coaching protocols are abusive and cruel to children.

Coach must institute Athlete Safety 1st and Sportsmanship tips and protocols 1st and foremost.

Coach must be educated about the following EXAMPLES OF NOT-ACCIDENTAL, PREVENTABLE Sport, Recreation and Esxercise (SRE) INJURIES and causes of DEATHS, practice Athlete Safety 1st and take care to avoid and eliminate any risks of occurence of the following:
Emotional Athlete Abuse, Coercion, Threats, Intimidation, Blaming, ” Vergal Trashing”
Verbal Abuse, Pathological Screaming, Yelling, Name Calling, Belittling
Physical Abuse, Assaults, Punching, Head Butting, Forearming Athletes
Sexual Abuse and Misconduct, Coach Pedophilia
Practice and Play outside during Dangerous Heat Index and Air Quality Index and Diesel Fuel and Coal Burning Environmental Conditions
Practice and Play outside near an ideling Diesel Fuel School Bus or Coal Burning power plant
Exertional Heat Stroke from Practice and Play outside during dangerous Heat index
Exertional Heat Stroke from Dehydration and Water Deprivation
Acute Concussion and Persistent Chronic Concussion Pathology Mismanagement
Physical Assault fist, forearm, kick, head but by Coach
Overuse Exercise, Ankles, Knees, Hips, Shoulders, Elbows
Soccer Heading causing injury
Misdiagnosed Spleen Rupture
Blind Eye to rampant Marijuana abuse
Approved Doping and Illegal Drug abuse
Throwing Objects at Athletes causing injury
Undiagnosed / Misdiagnosed Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy, Sudden Death
Unprotected Eye Trauma
Mental Toughness Misconception causing injury
Stress Fractures from over-exercise and overuse
Tommy John’s Elbow overuse
Human Rights Violations
Injuries secondary to Playing Out of Position
Injuries secondary to Mismatched age and size
Football Spearing to opponents head
Flagrant Basketball Fouls with injuries
Cheerleading Injuries from negligent supervision, maltreatment
SRE participation despite non-Readiness, non-acclimation
Improper Motivation, Cheap Shots on opponents, Cheating, Breaking Rules
Injuries secondary to Failed use of Baseball Helmets, Face Masks, Breast protector, no helmet and/or mask in Bull Pen , coaching the Bean Ball injuries
Discrimination on any count
Acute Exertional Rhabdomyolysis
Every Coach must institute an approved SRE 911 Emergency Action Plan
Pulling-Out from a corrupt SRE program is not quitting, but moving to an Athlete Safety 1st high ground
YO7.53 is now the 1st ever, new ICD-10 Diagnostic Code for Coach Offender, who has Physically, Psychologically and/or Sexually Abused Child Athletes and committed any other of the above misconducts

This reporter was subjectd to many of the above Athlete Abuses at the University of Kentucky, while participating in football under Charlie Bradshaw. Following preparation in 2007 for the June 2008 UK 1961 Class’s Football Reunion we teammates found startling results. We surveyed our teams’ injuries and published: “The Longitudinal and Retrospective Study of The Impact of Coaching Behaviors on the 1961-1962 University of Kentucky Football Wildcats” by Kay Collier McLaughlin, Ph.D., Micheal B. Minix Sr. M.D., Twila Minix, R.N., Jim Overman, Scott Brogdon.

Continuing with Not-Accidental, Preventable Children’s Sports Injuries, Primary and Secondary Risk Factors for Heat Stroke are expanded.


A. Inadequate Oxygen an/ or Inadequate Airway
B. Breathing Difficulty. Can’t Breathe on their own.
C. Circulation Compromise and Cardiovascular Pathology
D. Poor Air Quality. Increased Ground Level Ozone and other Air Polution. See Publication Heat + Ozone + Synergism + Exercise
In addition the ABC’s of Resuscitation are a mnemonic used in the care of the unconscious or unresponsive patient. It is used as a reminder of the priorities for assessment and treatment of patients in many acute medical and trauma situations. Airway, breathing, and circulation are vital for life, and each is required, in that order, for the next to be effective. The Heat Stroke Patient must have the ABC’s attended and stabilized 1st in that order.


A. Sympathomimetics (alpha adrenergic agonists)
B. Anticholinergics
Benztropine mesylate
C. Diuretics
Furosemide (Lasix)
Bumetanide (Bumex)
D. Phenothiazines
Chlorpromazine hydrochloride
Promethazine hydrochloride
E. Butyrophenones
Haloperidol (Haldol)
F. Tricyclic Antidepressant
Amitriptyline (Elavil)
G. Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors
H. Recreational and Illicit Drugs
Lysergic Acid diethylamide (LSD)
Other Medications
Beta Blockers
Calcium Channel Blockers

Heat Illness Prevention

Pathophysiology Predisposing conditions alter heat balance
1. Increased endogenous heat load : Vigorous Exercise or overexertion
2. Increased Exogenous Heat load -Sun Exposure -Increased Heat Index
3. Decreased Heat Dissipation
a. Exogenous cause -Humidity
Occlusive or excessive clothing
b. Endogenous cause –
Lack of acclimatization
Healed burns
Sweat Gland Dysfunction
4. Other predisposing factors for abnormal heat balance
a. Prior Heat Stroke
b. Concurrent infection
Upper Respiratory Infection
c. Elderly
Myocardial dysfunction
Decreased muscle mass
Decreased skin blood supply
Renal insufficiency
Chronic illness
d. Comorbid medical condition
Cystic Fibrosis
Diabetes Insipidus
Poorly controlled Diabetes Mellitus

William O. Roberts, MD, sports medicine MinnHealth in White Bear Lake, Minn Czerkawski (1996) Your Patient Fitness 10(4): 13-20
Sandor (1997) Physician SportsMed, 25(6):35-40
Barrow (1998) Am Fam Physician 58(3):749
Hett (1998) Postgrad Med 103(6):107
Wexler (2002) Am Fam Physician 65(11):2307

Heat Stroke References
1. Vertuno Jim, The Associated Press, Longhorns Tackling the Heat: Pill Helping Texas Survive Rising Temperatures, published by the Victoria Advocate, August 15, 2007.
2. Hyperthermia, Wikipedia Encylopedia, October 2006, Retrieved from “”
3. Heat Illness, Heat Exhaustion, Heat Stroke. The Nemours Foundation/Kids Health at January 3, 2007.
4. Joseph Rampulla, MS,APRN,BC (June 2004). Hyperthermia & Heat Stroke: Heat-Related Conditions (pdf). The Health Care of Homeless Persons pp.199-204. Boston Health Care for the Homeless Program. Retrieved on 2007-02-22 at: .
5. “Are you ready for extreme heat?” Courtesy: Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security. Available from FEMA at: Updated August 20, 2007. This information may have changed or been updated since it was accessed. For the most current information, contact FEMA at
6. Scott Anderson “Preventing Muscle Cramping in Football”. Coach and Athletic Director. May 2001. At, 15 September 2007. E.
7. Randy Eichner “Muscle cramps: the right ways for the dog days”. Coach and Athletic Director. August 2002. 15 Sep. 2007.
8. Maddali Sirish, Rodeo Scott, Barnes Ronnie, Warren Russell, Murrell George: Post-exercise Increase in Nitric Oxide in Football Players with Muscle Cramps. The American Journal of Sports Medicine 26: 820-824, 1998.
9. Ruiz E J, Mitchell I D, Eberman L E, Cleary M A. Severe dehydration with cramping resulting in exertional rhabdomyolysis in a high school quarterback. In Cleary M A, Eberman LE, Odai ML eds. Proceedings of the Fifth Annual College of Education Research Conference: Section on Allied Health Professions. April 2006; 1: 31-35. Miami: Florida International Univeristy.
10. Cleveland Minot. Musle Cramp. University of Illinois Medical Center at Chicago: Health Library, at, March 13, 2000; reviewed January 4, 2007. “Salt tablets are not useful and should be avoided.”
11. Texas Children’s Hospital. Preventing Heat Illness. Texas Children’s Hospital: Caring for Your Child’s Health at, 2005. “Salt pills are unnecessary and possibly dangerous.”
12. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Frequently Asked Questions about Extreme Heat. Emergency Preparedness and Response Website at August 15, 2006. “Do not take salt tablets unless directed by your doctor.”
13. Gillis Rick (reviewer). Heat-Related Illness Can Quickly Become Serious. Healthlink: Medical College of Wisconsin at:
Prepared by Stephen T. Hougen, M.D., F.A.C.S., GETAC Injury Prevention Committee, August 19,
7, June 28, 2007. “Salt pills should not be used without 1st asking your health care provider.”
14. Taylor-Oring Leslie. Is it Heat Exhaustion or Heat Stroke? Tae Park Tae Kwon Do at: March 14, 1999. “Give them cool liquids—NO SALT PILLS.”
15. Eichner Randy. Curbing Muscle Cramps: More than Oranges and Bananas. Hot Topics in Sports Nutrition. Gatorade Sports Science Institute, at: July 25, 2003.
16. Coyle Edward. Fluid and Carbohydrate Replacement During Exercise: How Much and Why? Gatorade Sports Science Institute, Sports Science Exhange #50, Volume7 (1994), Number 3, at:
17. Eichner Randy. Heat Stroke in Sports: Causes, Prevention, and Treatment. Gatorade Sports Science Institute, Sports Science Exchange #86, Volume 15 (2002), Number 3, at:
18. Eichner Randy. Heat Stroke in Sports: How to Protect Yourself and Help Your Teammates. Gatorade Sports Science Institute, Sports Science Exchange #86, Volume 15 (2002), Number 3 Supplement, at:
19. Murray Robert, Eichner Randy. Preventing Heat Illness: Keeping Athletes from Falling into Danger Zones. Gatorade Sports Science Institute, Sports Science Library at:
20. Casa Douglas, Murray Robert. Sports Science News: Preventing Exertional Heat Illness: A Consensus Statement. Gatorade Sports Science Institute, Sports Science Library, 2007, at:
21. Conrad Mark. Mark’s View: Heat Stroke and Football Practice (A comment on the heat stroke death of Minnesota Viking Korey Stringer). Mark’s Sportslaw News, 2001, at:
22. CNN News. Vikings football player dies of heat stroke, at:, August 1, 2001. This is a CNN news story about Korey Stringer.
23. Associated Press, Mankato, Minnesota. Vikings tackle Stringer dies from heatstroke, August 2001.
24. The Associated Press, Gainesville, Florida: Florida player Autin dies six days after heat stroke. Volume 101, No. 187, Thursday, July 26, 2001. This article discusses the heat stroke death of 18 year old freshman Eraste Autin who collapsed during a work out in 88 degrees, 72% humidity, heat index of 100.
25. Smith Michael. Football Practice Heat Stroke Deaths Preventable (An article about the heat stroke death of 18 year old Chris Stewart). MedPage Today, Daily Headlines, Oklahoma City, August 18, 2005.
26. Sparks Tara. Death has parents concerned. Victoria Advocate, page 1, August 15, 2003 at:
Prepared by Stephen T. Hougen, M.D., F.A.C.S., GETAC Injury Prevention Committee, August 19,
This article describes a parents’ safety meeting following the death of 14 year-old Matthew Thomas.
27. Victoria Advocate staff writer. Autopsy not yet released. Victoria Advocate, page 1, August 15, 2003, at:
28. deLench Brook. To Nineteen Youth Athletes Dying Young. MomsTeam, A Parents Trusted Youth Sports Source, at August 25, 2007.
29. Reddy Vinay. Heat Cramps, Heat Exhaustion, and Heat Stroke. Dr. Reddy’s Pediatric Office on the Web at, 1/12/07.
30. Williamson David. UNC Warns of Possible Heat Strokes for High School Atheletes, at, 2004.
31. Roberts William. Death in the Heat: Can Football Heat Stroke be Prevented? Current Sports Medicine Reports. (3), 2004.
32. Roberts William. Common Threads in a Random Tapestry: Another Viewpoint on Exertional Heatstroke, The Physician and Sports Medicine. 33(10) 2-5, October 2005.
33. Roberts William. Exertional Heat Stroke during a Cool Weather Marathon: A Case Study. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, Official Journal of the American College of Sports Medicine, pages 1197-1203, January 2006 at
34. Fighting Heat Stress, at http://fighting_heat_stress,asp.htm.
35. Donohue Paul. Exertional Heat Stroke: A Preventable Cause of Death, To Your Good Health. Victoria Advocate, page E-5, Saturday, July 14, 2007.
36. Jung Alan, Bishop Phillip, Al-Nawwas Ali, Dale Barry. Influence of Hydration and Electolyte Supplementation on Incidence and Time to Onset of Exercise-Associated Muscle Cramps. Journal of Athletic Training 40(2): 71-75, April-June 2005.
37. The Zunis Foundation. How Hot is Hot? How Safe if Safe? At, April 8, 2007.
38. It’s Hot, It’s Humid, It’s Sunny: Information on Heat and Sun-Related Illnesses. Street Medics,
39. Hirsch Larissa. Heat Exhaustion and Heat Stroke: A Poster. This is a handy instructional “Heat Sheet” found at
40. Bergeron Michael F, Cannon Joseph G, Hall Elaina L, Kutlar Abdullah. Erythrocyte Sickling During Exercise and Thermal Stress. Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine. 14(6): 354-356, November 2004.
41. Gallais Daniel Le, Bile Alphonse, Mercier Jacques, Paschel Marc, Tonellot Jean Louis, Dauverchain Jean. Exercise-induced death in sickle cell trait: role of aging, training, and deconditioning. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 28(5): 541-544, May 1996.
42. Kark J A, Posey D M, Schumacher H R, Ruehle C J. Sickle-cell trait as a risk factor for sudden death in physical training. New England Journal of Medicine. (317): 781-787, September 1987.
43. Binkley Helen M, Beckett Joseph, Casa Douglas J, Kleiner Douglas M, Plummer Paul E. National Athletic Trainers’ Association Position Statement: Exertional
Prepared by Stephen T. Hougen, M.D., F.A.C.S., GETAC Injury Prevention Committee, August 19,
Heat Illnesses. Journal of Athletic Training. 37(3): 329-343, July-September 2002.
44. Guyton Arthur C, Hall John E. Circulatory Shock and Physiology of its Treatment, Chapter 24, Textbook of Medical Physiology, Eleventh Edition. W.B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia, June 2005.
45. Guyton Arthur C, Hall John E. The Body Fluid Compartments: Extracellular and Intracellular Fluids, Chapter 25, Textbook of Medical Physiology, Eleventh Edition. W.B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia, June 2005.
46. Guyton Arthur C, Hall John E. Body Temperature, Temperature Regulation, and Fever, Chapter 73, Textbook of Medical Physiology, Eleventh Edition. W.B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia, June 2005.
47. Guyton Arthur C, Hall John E. Regulation of Extracellular Fluid Osmolarity and Sodium Concentration, Chapter 28, Textbook of Medical Physiology, Eleventh Edition. W.B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia, June 2005.
48. Graves, Will. Case of Kentucky Coach puts Football on Trial. The Associated Press. The Victoria Advocate, page C-7, Friday, January 30, 2009.
49. Max Gilpin, at
50. Louisville News, Homepage. Witness: Teen’s Death was Preventable. August 27, 2008. Copyright 2008 by
51. Konz, Antoinette. 911 Call: PRP player drifted in, out of consiousness., Louisville, Kentucky at, November 7, 2008.
52. PRP Football Player Collapses at Practice, In Critical Condition. August 22, 2008.
53. PRP Football Player Dies 3 Days after Collapse in Practice. Louisville, Kentucky. At, August 27, 2009.
54. Binkley, Helen; Beckett, Joseph;Casa, Douglas; Kleiner, Douglas; Plummer, Paul. National Athletic Trainers’ Association Position Statement: Exertional Heat Illnesses. Journal of Athletic Training. 2002 Jul-Sep; 37(3): 329-343.
55. Parents’ and Coasches’ Guide to Dehydration and other Heat Illnesses in Children. National Safe Kids Campaign. Adapted from: Inter-Association task force on exertional heat illnesses consensus statement: National Athletic Trainers’ Association. June 2003. Available at:
Prepared by Stephen T. Hougen, M.D., F.A.C.S., GETAC Injury Prevention Committee, August 19,

“Safe Kids Worldwide survey of emergency room visits using data from the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission’s National Electronic Injury Surveillance System shows more than a million times a year, or about every 25 seconds, a young athlete visits a hospital emergency room for a sports-related injury.

• “1.35 million kids were seen in a hospital ER in 2012 for a sports-related injury
• “1 child every 3 minutes was seen for a sports-related concussion
• “Younger athletes, ages 12 to 15, made up 47% of concussions

“Sprains and strains, fractures, contusions, abrasions and concussions top the list of sports-related ER diagnoses for kids ages 6 to 19 — at a cost of more than $935 million each year, according Safe Kids Worldwide.

“The report, which analyzed data for 2011 and 2012, found that 1 of 5 kids who go to ERs for treatment of an injury is there for sports injuries.
“Far too many kids are arriving in emergency rooms for injuries that are predictable and preventable,” CEO Kate Carr says.

“More than 46.5 million children played team sports in 2011, says the report.

“In 2012, 12% of all ER visits (163,670) involved a concussion, the equivalent of 1 every 3 minutes. Nearly half (47%) were in kids ages 12 to 15.
That’s particularly troubling, given research showing that younger athletes take a longer time to heal than older athletes after a concussion, which is a traumatic brain injury, because their bodies are still growing, Carr says. “And we know that a second concussion later can cause even more issues.”

Among youth basketball players, 11.5% of girls seen in the ER are diagnosed with concussions, compared with 7.2% of boys. Among soccer players, it’s 17.1% of girls compared with 12.4% of boys.

“Overuse injuries to tendons, bones and joints can result from playing the same sport and performing the same movements too often, too hard or at too young an age with inadequate recovery time.

“Jayanthi and colleagues found that young athletes who played a single sport for more hours a week than years they were old were 70% more likely to experience serious overuse injuries.

“Athletes should be encouraged to speak up about injuries, coaches should be supported in injury-prevention decisions, and parents and young athletes should become better educated about sports safety. [Michelle Healy, USA TODAY Aug. 6, 2013]

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *