“Participation in Sports, Recreation, and Exercise (SRE) is increasingly popular and widespread in American culture…. Recent reports estimate millions emergency visits occur each year for injuries related to participation in sports and recreation.” [12.]
Everyone knows SRE accidents happen, while playing by the rules of the game, in safe SRE environments, with proper athlete protection, coaching supervision and conduct. Serious Injuries and Deaths that occur during blameless circumstances are Inherent and Natural to the game that athletes play.
These incidents are called Accidental and Not-Preventable. An aggressive clean football tackle that fractures an arm is an Accident and Not Preventable
Conversely, Preventable, Not Accidental Injuries and Deaths occur at a rate of approximately 50% of sports-related Children’s Injuries and are not Inherent and Natural to the game that athletes play.
“About 3.5 million children age 14 and under are treated for sports-related injuries annually, and half may be preventable, Safe Kids USA officials say.” [28.] [29.] [30.]
“Each year in the United States, an estimated 38 million children play organized sports, and basketball, baseball/softball, football, soccer, and cheerleading are among the most popular.1 Yet, sports injuries are common, resulting in 3.5 million medical visits annually.2 Most of these injuries are preventable.” [13.][16.]
These references are used in numerous references and commonly cited in Youth Sports Safety articles. The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Foundation partners with Corporations such as Johnson & Johnson to outsource and collaborate in surveys and studies, cost savings innovations. The above is attributed to CDC and partner J&J. [13.][16.]
Preventable, Not Accidental Injuries and Deaths of SRE Children (<18) and Youth (15-24) Athletes are secondary to Child Athlete Abuse Syndrome (CAAS), the name that defines the clustering of pathologies resulting from severe punishments, injury mismanagements, such as concussion, over-use exercise, physical assaults and participation during severe weather conditions i.e. dangerous heat index, poor air quality and electrical storms to name a few.
CAAS Recognition Education requires a definition to enable Doctors, Health Care Personnel and everyone to identify “how it looks”, which was the first question I was asked by a Prevent Child Abuse Kentucky staff member. She asked me essentially to define these disorders.
The following definition was formulated and now is established and used by many Child Athlete Safety advocates, researchers and reporters.
The recently passed law, Safe Sport Act, is aimed at protecting Child and Youth Olympian Athletes from sexual abuse. The new legislation, S.534, became law January 30, 2018
It took the federal statute, S.534 Law, Safe Sport Act, to begin Athlete Safe Sport 1st initiative, which evolved from Athlete Safety 1st and this publisher’s advocacy which began with our story University of Kentucky football tragic story documented in the book by Shannon Ragland, ‘the Thin Thirty, published in 2007.
The following excerpt of our tragic football story is from ‘The Pathological Impact of Bradshaw Coaching on the 1961 University of Kentucky Football Class’
published on this websiet June 2, 2012. Publication link: http://www.cappaa.com/kentucky-football-tragedy-and-bradshaw-forgiveness
Our first Football Class Reunion was June 14, 2008, about one year after the publication of The Thin Thirty. The 2008 Reunion of the 1961-1962 University of Kentucky Football Class was both very Gratifying and Concerning.
The Thin Thirty is a remarkable book written by Shannon Ragland and published by Set Shot Press in 2007. It is an historical book about the University of Kentucky Football tragedy in 1962, untold and hushed until this book’s publication. Please see The Thin Thirty for many of the grueling details and/or see on this website ‘PLOWLINE COACHES, MULES, AND A HUNDRED YARDS OF COTTON’. This report is primarily the pathological survey.
As we organized our first 1961-1962 University of Kentucky Wildcat Football Class Reunion, we began gathering information. Questionnaires were mailed to our teammates and information gathering began.
Concerns about teammates reported experiences 50 Years Ago began to accumulate as teammates returned information for the Reunion.
We realized our teammates suffered morbidity and mortality from the reports submitted. That prompted us to survey our 1961-1962 University of Kentucky Football Team. Frank Deford, Sports Illustrated reporter, said from his recollection, it was the “first study of its kind”.
The result was “A Longitudinal and Retrospective Study of The Impact of Coaching Behaviors on the 1961-1962 University of Kentucky Football Wildcats”, Kay Collier McLaughlin, Ph.D., Micheal B. Minix Sr. M.D., Twila Minix, R.N., Jim Overman, Scott Brogdon.
Thus began our research group’s mission to discover the circumstances and pathology that compelled Charlie Bradshaw and his assistants to the vile, tyrannical, brutal, abusive, abnormal Coaching Behaviors that they manifest during 1962.
The Study’s Results: This Study was about 1961-1962 University of Kentucky Football Freshman. The history of our team began with the hope and promise of academic and football success at the University of Kentucky.
Each player had committed to Coach Blanton Collier and his All-Star assistants and the University of Kentucky. But the University of Kentucky failed to fullfil their commitment to our team. Our 1961 UK freshman football class was larger and contained more out of state recruits tan in the past. 8 High School All-America were in the class. Reporters claimed our class was the best ever recruited at UK. This reporter has no way of knowing our rank among other classes.
Instead it became a lifetime of morbidity and mortality for the players, after Coach Blanton Collier was replaced by Charlie Bradshaw. Coach Collier was immediately replaced after the end of the first semester of 1961, at the beginning of the Spring Semester of 1962.
The players had no fore-warning prior to this tragic replacement. None heard of possible uneasiness about the UK coaching staff during our high school decision making time or during the first semester at UK. Electronic media was non-existent.
There was no intervention on our behalf after the abusive Bradshaw saga began. To this day the brutal assaults and mistreatments of the athletes haunt many of the players. The University of Kentucky never admitted to the athletic community their wrong doings and never apologized to the players for their mistreatments and crimes.
Coach Bear Bryant apologized to the Junction Boys a few years after his admitted “pigheaded” abusive mistreatments of his players. Charlie Bradshaw was a disciple of Bear. Bradshaw played for Bear at UK and was an assistant to Bear at Alabama. Bradshaw was not head coaching qualified, like Bear in several or our teammates opinions.
Because of the impact on the health and welfare of the players and the loss of scholarships of the players, the University of Kentucky committed a tragic breech of trust and fiduciary responsibility, when they replaced Coach Blanton Collier with Charlie Bradshaw.
The players, after the replacement, were suddenly faced with a football regime, backed by the University of Kentucky administrators, who had no respect for the players and who did not act responsibly to the players.
Everyone concerned with University of Kentucky football program, from the president of the University down, breached the covenants with the players. They should have respected our football athletes as human beings, acted responsibly for our safety, health and welfare and fostered our scholastic development.
From the studies, it appears that Charlie Bradshaw’s behavior was abusive and sometimes criminal. His malicious behavior affected the players and will continue to affect the players for their lifetimes. The Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and Anxiety Reactions have affected and will affect the quality and duration each player’s life. The degree of PTSD appeared to be directly proportional to the amount of emotional and physical investment of each athlete.
At the time, football was extremely important to this reporter. My loss of football was equivalent to the extreme sadness experienced from loss of a close family member. Even worse was the shunning by UK fans and alumni in my small home town. Once pleased to see me, thy turned and walked in the opposite direction without a word. It was if I had commuted an unthinkable crime. Of course, they and others did not know the UK football tragic story. We Uk football Athletes were the victims.
The following studies support the cruelty and maltreatment we UK athletes endured.
Some of the assistants appeared to identify with Charlie Bradshaw and his abnormal behavior. Together they acted out Bradshaw’s abuse. He appeared to be maliciously sadistic toward his team according to some of the teammates reports.
In spite of Bradshaw’s malbehavior and the players’ Post Traumatic Stress disorders (PTSD) and Anxiety Reactions and other mental and physical disorders, that were the results of his and UK’s mistreatments, most of the surviving players have become successful in their businesses, professional and personal lives.
“Pulling out” of Bradshaw football was their only hope for success for some teammates. Parents and the athletic community should never chastise an athlete who “pulls out” of a corrupt athletic program. “Pulling out” might save that athlete’s life. That is not quitting.
The successes that resulted from “pulling out” from the Bradshaw regime and moving in other directions from him, have been revealed in the book The Thin Thirty by Shannon Ragland. The successes stand as a reminder of sweet revenge for many of the players.
About half of the players had forgiven Bradshaw at the time of our 2008 Reunion. About half had not forgiven Bradshaw and do not intend to forgive him and his assistants. Some can’t even fathom the question.
No player who participated in the study would want Bradshaw to coach their son in Bradshaw’s abnormal behavioral condition, that he exhibited in 1962.
No player embraced Bradshaw’s system of bully-boy, brainwashing brutal abusive coaching method.
Please see the 2008 Survey Results, I. Psychological Athlete Abuse Survey and II. Physical Athlete Abuse Survey, below.
The first Athlete Safety 1st publication, this website, was June 8, 2011.
Coach is a very particular Supervisor, Temporary Substitute Caretaker label that requires that the Coach, in the Child-Athlete-Coach relationship, implement complete Child (<18) Athlete Protection, Care and Safety in the absence of the Permanent Caretaker, Parent or Guardian.
According to CAPTA 2010, Federal Public Law 111-320, it is illegal for a Supervisor, aka Permanent Caretaker and Temporary Substitute Caretaker, to have sexual contact with minor children, less than 18, whom the Coach is supervising and for whom the Coach is providing care.
CAPTA 2010 includes that it is also illegal for a Supervisor, aka Permanent Caretaker and Temporary Substitute Caretaker, to physically and emotionally (psychologically) endanger, maltreat or abuse minor children, less than 18, directly or indirectly, or allow physical and emotional (psychological) endangerment, maltreatment or abuse of minor children, less than 18, directly or indirectly, whom they are supervising and providing care.
There is no age for sexual consent by minors (<18) to Supervisor Caretakers in CAPTA 2010. Sexual consent considerations are irrelevant concerning Supervisors, Caregivers / Caretakers in the criminal statues of CAPTA 2010, Public Law 111-320.
This a special law for Child Protection under which violators and perpetrators can be prosecuted. This special Child-Athlete-Caretaker/Supervisor relationship is not a dating, courtship, special friendship or marriage relationship.
During dating, courtship, special friendship and marriage relationships, “a person may move to sexual contact on the basis of body language and apparent receptivity, but very few people on a date that results in sexual contact have explicitly asked the other if his or her consent is informed, if he does in fact fully understand what is implied, and all potential conditions or results.
Informed consent is implied (or assumed unless disproved) but not stated explicitly.” “A person below the age of consent may agree to sex, knowing all the consequences, but his or her consent is deemed invalid as they are deemed to be a child unaware of the issues and thus incapable of being informed to be able to consent.
Therefore, the individual is barred from legally giving informed consent, despite what they may feel in a dating, courtship, special friendship or marriage relationship. [Faden, R. R., & Beauchamp, T. L. (1986). A History and Theory of Informed Consent. New York: Oxford University Pr] Child Saving history was most positively affected following “The Battered-Child Syndrome” report. Battered Child Syndrome, the first report describing Child Abuse in the U.S., was reported in 1962. It evolved into Child Protection Laws. [“The Battered-Child Syndrome”, C. Henry Kempe, M.D.; Frederic N. Silverman, M.D.; Brandt F. Steele, M.D.; William Droegemueller, M.D. ; Henry K. Silver, M.D., JAMA. 1962;181(1):17-24.]
Following and with inspiration from “The Battered-Child Syndrome” report, the United States Federal Governmental enacted the first Child Protection Law known as Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act (CAPTA) 1972. CAPTA has been amended several times and was last amended in CAPT Reauthorization Act, 2010, Public Law 111-320.
CAPTA 2010 was announced and promulgated, funds and resources were allocated to states and public policies were established.
• Caretaker / Caregiver is a person who:
• Cares for a child
• Is providing active care
• Has custody or has control of a child
• Supervisor, Protects
• Permanent Caretaker is a Parent or Legal Guardian
• Temporary Substitute Caretaker is a person assigned to care for a child when the permanent caretaker is not present for supervision.
Coaches, teachers, camp counselors, bus drivers, babysitters, uncles, boy scout leaders, priests, grandparents, day care employees etc. are in to that category.
“Federal legislation provides guidance to States by identifying a minimum set of acts or behaviors that define child abuse and neglect. The Federal Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act (CAPTA) (42 U.S.C.A. § 5106g), as amended by the CAPTA Reauthorization Act of 2010, defines child abuse and neglect as, at minimum: “Any recent act or failure to act on the part of a parent or caretaker which results in death, serious physical or emotional harm, sexual abuse or exploitation; or” “An Act of failure to act which presents an imminent risk of serious harm.”
“This definition of child abuse and neglect refers specifically to parents and other caregivers. A “child” under this definition generally means a person who is younger than age 18 or who is not an emancipated minor.” [Children’s Bureau, Administration for Children and Families, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services]
Problematic Abusers will continue maltreating and abusing as long as they believe they can get away with it. Unfortunately the Will to Enforce the Law is the greatest Prevention and Deterrence of Child and Youth Athlete Abuse.
Prevent Child Athlete Cruelty and Abuse. Stop Coaches, Parents and Doctors from Crossing the Criminal and Civil Lines.
U.S REP. GEORGE MILLER ASKED GAO TO INVESTIGATE YOUTH ATHLETIC CLUBS’ CHILD ABUSE ALLEGATIONS And Expand Investigation into Child Abuse Reporting Laws to Include Athletics, Extracurricular Activities
It is a serious issue that affects all humans and all participants i.e. the athletes, coaches, parents, doctors and health care personnel, officials and entire athletic communities.
The goals of sports are to create a sporting environments with fair play, the complete respect for others. played within the rules of the game, rules of child and youth protection and an atmosphere that will not tolerate unacceptable violent behaviors. Sports builds good character…when coaches’, parents’ and doctors’ characters are exemplary when they coach, parent and care-for the Athletes who participate in the sports. 8.
There are many grey areas of violence in sports. Rugged, rough, physical collision and contact sports should be different than non-contact sports in some respects, when played by the rules of the game. 107.
But the grey areas are metastasizing to sports that were once purely finesse. No matter, rules of child and youth protection are superior to arbitrary, capricious, non-legislative man made associations’ rules of play and are criminal when violated.
All types of abuse can occur in sport just as in other institutions i.e. school, workplace, government, religion, scouts and the home. Abuse in sport, sexual or not, discourages girls and women from participation and athletic development.
Implementation of abuse policies will help create structural climates where women, girls, men and boys, can participate and feel free to report abusive and maltreatment incidents. “Setting policy on verbal, physical and psychological abuse is also likely to decrease the likelihood of such offenses.
The Women’s Sports Foundation acknowledges that abuse occurs in athletics and seeks to prevent its occurrence through the development of this policy and position statement.” 119.
The Surgeon General of the United States Workshop 2005 included Coaches among potential targeted perpetrators of Child Abuse and Neglect. [Surgeon General’s Workshop on Making Prevention of Child Maltreatment a National Priority: Implementing Innovations of a Public Health Approach, Office of the Surgeon General (US); 2005. NIH, Bethesda, Maryland, 2005]
Currently, violence and abuse in sports have been neglected by many dysfunctional systems in crisis, some of whom were named by the Surgeon General and others included by this reporter following further research. These systems in crisis have resulted, sometimes from ignorance of the law, error, lack of will to enforce the law, and/ or frank maliciousness, resulting in obstruction of CAAS Prevention:
• Public Health Services
• Sports Medicine
• Social /Child Welfare Systems
• Criminal Justice Departments
• Education-Awareness Groups
• Federal High School Athletic Federations
• State High School Athletic Associations
• Non-School Leagues and Associations Everyone knows SRE accidents happen, while playing by the rules of the game, in safe SRE environments, with proper athlete protection, coaching supervision and conduct.
Serious Injuries and Deaths that occur during blameless circumstances are Inherent and Natural to the game that athletes play. They are called Accidental and Not-Preventable.
An aggressive clean football tackle that fractures an arm is an Accident and Not Preventable.
Conversely, Preventable, Not Accidental Injuries and Deaths occur at a rate of approximately fifty per-cent.
Preventable, Not Accidental Injuries and Deaths of SRE Children (<18) Athletes are secondary to severe punishments, injury mismanagements, such as concussion, over-use exercise, physical assaults and participation during severe weather conditions i.e. dangerous heat index, poor air quality and electrical storms to name a few.
Recently I was consulted concerning push-up punishment to an adolescent swimmer that resulted in a Preventable, Not-Accidental torn shoulder labrum and dislocation necessitating surgery. The violation was reported to authorities and will probably result in serious consequences.
Child SRE Coaches are “Temporary Substitute Caretakers” (TSC) in the eyes of the Public Law 111-320, Child Abuse Prevention Treatment and Reauthorization Act 2010 and in the eyes of the U.S. Surgeon General and the Kentucky Department of Community Based Services (DCBS) and Child Protection Services (CPS). [Micheal B. Minix, SR., M.D., Journal of the Kentucky Medical Association, Page 384, September 2012 / vol 110]
STATISTICS SUPPORT THE REASON FOR CHILD ATHLETE SAVING
• ~45,000,000 (~60%) U.S. Children played one School or Non-School Amateur Sport 2010. [47.]
• “According to the CDC, more than half of all sports injuries in children are preventable.” [ 28.]
• Approximately 8,000 children are treated in emergency rooms each day for sports-related injuries.
• High school athletes suffer 2 million injuries, 500,000 doctor visits and 30,000 hospitalizations each year. 
• There are three times as many catastrophic football injuries among high school athletes as college athletes. 
• Emergency department visits for concussions sustained during organized team sports doubled among 8–13 year olds between 1997 and 2007 and nearly tripled among older youth. 
• Concussion rates more than doubled among students age 8–19 participating in sports like basketball, soccer and football between 1997 and 2007, even as participation in those sports declined. 
• More than 248,000 children visited hospital emergency departments in 2009 for concussions and other traumatic brain injuries related to sports and recreation.  – [48.]
• 31 high school players died of heat stroke complications between 1995 and 2009. 
• The number of heat-related injuries from 1997 to 2006 increased 133 percent. Youth accounted for the largest proportion of heat-related injuries or 47.6 percent.  – [48.]
• The incidence of out-of-hospital sudden cardiac arrest in high school athletes ranges from .28 to 1 death per 100,000 high school athletes annually in the U.S. – [48.]
• Thus, if an estimated 50% of Child Athletes Sports Injuries are preventable; these are Not-Accidental Injuries and are not inherent or natural to the game that the Child Athlete was playing. Thus they are secondary to Child Athlete Abuse Syndrome (CAAS) by definition.
We need to save Child Athletes from CAAS. Please see more statistics below.
Strength is the cornerstone of every sport, but injuries during improper supervision of Strength Training by unqualified Strength Training Coaches can become the rock bottom of an Athlete’s career.
The American College of Sports Medicine notes that Child and Youth Athletes require special considerations when designing an exercise program, because young Athletes body systems are immature and have individual human growth and development timelines.
“The AAP does note, however, that most injuries occur when the children and youth are poorly supervised or practicing with poor technique.”
A complete history and physical doctor examination is the first step, followed by considerations for an Athlete’s medical conditions and then followed by an individualized training program.
“NCAA rules say coaches can take only 20 hours a week of their players’ time.” Yet college Athletes spend another 20 hours with their Sport mostly in Strength Training. Misfortunately, many players are injured months before the season begins and during the season while Strength Training. [Youth Strength Training: Facts and Fallacies by Avery D. Faigenbaum, Ed.D., FACSM, Am Col Sports Med, Jan 13, 2012] [Council on Sports Medicine and Fitness Pediatrics Vol. 121 No. 4 April 1, 2008 pp. 835 -840] [What Are the Dangers of Children Lifting Weights? Dec 1, 2010 by Amy Dixon Living Strong] [NCAA survey delves into practice time, coaches’ trust, By Steve Wieberg, USA TODAY 1/15/2011]
CHILD ATHLETE SAVING HISTORY
Battered Child Syndrome, the first report describing Child Abuse in the U.S., was reported in 1962. It evolved into Child Protection Laws. [“The Battered-Child Syndrome”, C. Henry Kempe, M.D.; Frederic N. Silverman, M.D.; Brandt F. Steele, M.D.; William Droegemueller, M.D. ; Henry K. Silver, M.D., JAMA. 1962;181(1):17-24.]
The United States Federal Governmental enacted the first Child Protection Law known as Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act (CAPTA) 1972. CAPTA has been amended several times and was last amended in CAPT Reauthorization Act, 2010, Public Law 111-320. CAPTA 2010 was announced and promulgated, funds and resources were allocated and public policies were established.
Nineteen (19) years later, in 1981 Dr. Edwin R. Guise and Dr. Richard M. Ball, in disapproval, first described the terms respectively:
• “Socially Approved Athletic Child Abuse”
• “Battered-Child-Athlete-Syndrome”, [ 3.]
The Child Athlete Saving Bible is Human Rights in Youth Sport: (Ethics and Sport) by Paulo David that was published by Routledge December 16, 2004
“The human rights of children have been recognized in the 1989 UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, and ratified by 192 countries. Sport is an international language that everyone understands and a fundamental building block of Children’s Rights. Paulo David’s work makes it clear, however, that too often competitive sport fails to recognize the value of respect for international child rights norms and standards and respect for human rights of child athletes.” [critical review, Amazon.com]
This text, purchased by this reporter, was thoroughly researched and was a fundamental text for Child Athlete Saving movement. Mr. Paulo David is Deputy Director, Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights.
The Thin Thirty, a book by Shannon Ragland, published in 2007 by Set Shot Press, was a monumental action toward Child and Youth Athlete Safety and Prevention of Child Athlete Abuse.
TTT was also historic in the definition of Child Athlete Abuse Syndrome. The Thin Thirty enabled our team to find our teammates from our 1962 University of Kentucky Football Team that resulted in our reunion in 2008 and discussion and research of our football tragedy. TTT told our tragic football story of brain-washing brutality that reduced our squad from 88 to 33 athletes. Our thanks to Shannon Ragland and his family. So should the thanks of all Child and Youth Athletes.
In 2007 Women’s Sports Foundation began setting policy on verbal, physical, psychological and sexual abuse in an attempt to decrease these offenses. [Addressing the Issue of Verbal, Physical and Psychological Abuse of Athletes: The Foundation Position Oct 7, 2007 By Women’s Sports Foundation]
Child Athlete Abuse Syndrome (CAAS) Forensic definition by Micheal B. Minix Sr,. M.D. began following preparation in 2007 for the June 2008 UK Football Reunion. We surveyed our teams’ injuries: “The Longitudinal and Retrospective Study of The Impact of Coaching Behaviors on the 1961-1962 University of Kentucky Football Wildcats” by Kay Collier McLaughlin, Ph.D., Micheal B. Minix Sr. M.D., Twila Minix, R.N., Jim Overman, Scott Brogdon.
Subsequently, CAPPAA, Athlete Safety 1st, this website, was published and copy written 2009.
As a consultant to the National Cheer Safety Foundation and other groups, this author/editor taught CAAS to advocates and organizations incorporating training following instruction in Child Abuse Recognition Education (C.A.R.E.) sponsored by Prevent Child Abuse KY and U of Louisville Department Of Pediatric Forensic Medicine.
Child Athlete Abuse was first authored by Micheal B. Minix, SR., M.D. in 2009.
Child Athlete Abuse Syndrome, A New Disease was further described November 15, 2010.
Permission for use was granted to Kimberly Archie for the Cheer Safety and Risk Management Guide. (3537 words) by Micheal B. Minix, Sr., M.D. cc Sept. 2009 with copyright restrictions on “changes, alterations and other uses such as redistribution and sale of this document are not to be made without my permission.”*
Permission was granted to Cheryl Hoffman, Educational Director and assistant to the Executive Director for the National Collegiate Acrobatics and Tumbling Association, August 15, 2011 to use articles from my website Athlete Safety 1st in the “Risk Management Standards and Manual” online at: http://issuu.com/ncata/docs/risk_management?viewMode=magazine.
CAPPAA, (Child and Adult Physical and Psychological [Emotional] Athlete Abuse), a Public Health Crisis, was prepared for Presentation to Deputy Secretary Steven Nunn, the Kentucky Cabinet for Health and Family Services April 24, 2010 by mbmsrmd and the CAPPAA Team.
Child Athlete Abuse was discussed during break-out session during this reporter’s C.A.R.E. training. C.A.R.E. is Child Abuse Recognition Education.
In the past Child Athletes have been overlooked. C.A.R.E. staff reported after a pointed question from this reporter, mbmsrmd, concerning the investigation of Coaches for Child Abuse 1 month following training after the question had been submitted up the ladder to DCBS top ranking officials:
“The Child Safety Branch of DCBS (Department of Community Based Services which has a branch in each Kentucky county) has responded to the question regarding coaches as caregivers”……“Our agency [DCBS] investigates abuse and neglect allegations involving situations where a person is providing care, has custody or has control of a child. Teachers, camp counselors, bus drivers, babysitters, grandparents, coaches etc. fit in to that category if they are left to care for a child and the parent is not present (for supervision and caregiving). To my knowledge we are investigating these type situations in this manner across the state. If [DCBS] staff have questions about whether a person falls into these categories, they can consult with Central Office or their regional attorney.” [C.A.R.E. Coordinator, Feb. 27, 2009]
“Child Abuse Recognition Education is a very important endeavor. The mission of C.A.R.E. (Child Abuse Recognition Education) is to develop, support and grow a statewide network of doctors, key medical personnel and medical office staff who have committed themselves to ensuring the children in their communities are free from abuse and neglect as a result of receiving office-based training from their medical peers.” [Prevent Child Abuse Kentucky, http://www.pcaky.org/care.html]
This reporter, Micheal B. Minix, Sr., M.D., was trained and certified with many other doctors by C.A.R.E. for the instruction of physicians and their office staff in their community based offices about the recognition of Child Abuse. C.A.R.E. is a division of Prevent Child Abuse Kentucky.
Child SRE Coaches are recognized as “Temporary Substitute Caretakers” (TSC) in the eyes of the Public Law 111-320, Child Abuse Prevention Treatment and Reauthorization Act and the Kentucky Department of Community Based Services (DCBS) and Child Protection Services (CPS).
“A bill aimed at improving safety for high school athletes won initial legislative approval.” House Bill 383 became Kentucky Law: 2009 Ky. Acts ch. 90, sec. 2, effective March 24, 2009.
“Dr. Michael Minix Sr., a physician and former University of Kentucky football player, testified in favor of HB 383 before the KY House of Representatives, Education Committee that coaches don’t always abide by medical guidelines and that they need to be better educated about risks to players.” “Athlete abuse is on the rise in the United States,” Minix said. [Panel OKs Athlete Safety Bill, Feb 25, 2009, by Stephenie Steitzer Courier Journal Newspaper, Louisville, KY]
Forty-nine years after the report of Battered Child Syndrome, April 29, 2011, Micheal B. Minix, Sr., M.D., this reporter, presented the Forensic Definition of “Child Athlete Abuse Syndrome, A New Disease” at the Athlete Abuse Summit, Omni Parker House, Boston, MA.
This was the first public conference report of mbmsrmd’s CAAS’s definition, following his scholarly inquiry, investigation, interpretation of facts and correction of accepted theories and laws because of new facts.
This reporter has been a member of the Brunel International Research Network for Athlete Welfare (BIRNAW) since Nov19, 2010/ BIRNAW is a group of international researchers who are working together to promote athlete welfare through research and consultancy. Brunel University is in East London, UK. Members are provided article and updates, periodically, concerning international Child Athlete Welfare.
In Suite 101, Terry Zeigler reported, “While 2010 has become known as the “Year of Concussion Awareness”, 2011 needs to become the “Year of Child Athlete Abuse Awareness”.
“Actions by coaches resulting in youth athlete injuries need to be taken seriously by both the parents and by athletic administrations. Immediate action should be taken by the team’s athletic administrations to remove the coach, report the incident to the local authorities, and assist in providing the authorities with their full cooperation during any ensuing investigation.” [Suite101: The Athlete Abuse Summits report from Terry Zeigler: http://terry-zeigler.suite101.com/child-athlete-abuse-syndrome–when-athletes-pay-the-price-a393385]
Different well-intentioned organizations have worked to improve education and awareness of all parties, particularly Coaches. They have gathered insignificant permanent effects on sports violence and abuse. Most well-intentioned have very small power and authority.
So, who will rescue and prevent child and adult athlete physical and psychological (emotional) injuries and deaths and sexual abuse? Multitudes have been recruited for this cause from all business and professional fields, but fallen on deaf ears.
Finally, well known, celebrity sports organizations and health care personnel have weighed in on the problem. March, 2013 The Cal Ripkin Jr. Foundation hosted a summit on Abuse of Child Athletes. Their summit focused on Child Athlete Sexual Abuse. Ripken he decided to take on the chief question before the sporting community: “What can we do to make kids safer?” [March 19, 2013 by Yvonne Wenger, The Baltimore Sun]
That was good news. This reporter has awaited Sports Medicine doctor’s advocacy for years. Dr. James Andrews has just now stepped-up to the plate. “He’s had enough.” “Dr. Andrews is the father of modern sports medicine and one of the most influential figures in the world of athletics. In his new book (2013) ‘Any Given Monday’, he distills his practical wisdom and professional advice to combat a growing epidemic of injury among sports’ most vulnerable population: its young athletes.”
It appears, from this editor’s opinion that Dr. Andrews in his new book, ‘Any Given Monday’ (Jan 2013) has called out:
• Doctors, who have failed Child and Youth Athletes because they have failed to initiate an Awareness Campaign against Preventable, Not-Accidental sports injuries and deaths
• Parents, Guardians and Coaches, who have pushed and punished Child and Youth Athletes beyond their physical and emotional limits causing or allowing to be caused directly or indirectly Preventable, Not Accidental Overuse and other injuries. [Athlete Safety 1st, http://www.cappaa.com/]
What do Coaches, parents and doctors of child and youth athletes have in common? They often share the responsibility for child and youth athletes’ protection and, likewise, their injuries and deaths.
Coaches and parents are caretakers according to child protection laws, when child athletes are in their care, custody and control.
Responsibility matters. Doctors are responsible for the diagnosis and treatment of athlete morbidity. Medical examiners and coroners are responsible for examination of deceased child and youth athletes following Sports, Recreation and Exercise (SRE) mortality.
All three groups are responsible for reporting the following serious injury or death circumstances:
Child Athlete Abuse Syndrome is a Short Title for a Clustering of Child (<18) or Youth (15-18) Athlete Serious Injury, Disease and/or Death secondary to:
► Physical endangerment, maltreatment and/or abuse
► Psychological (Emotional) endangerment, maltreatment and/or abuse
► Sexual Abuse
► Failed child custodial protection
► Negligent care giving supervision
► Human rights violations
► That were inflicted, caused, created, or allowed to be inflicted, caused, created, directly or indirectly by the Problematic Coach, including the Strength Training, Conditioning and other specialty Coach, Problematic Parent or other Problematic Caretaker Person who has Child and Youth Athlete custodial protection, supervision, care and control during Sports, Recreation and Exercise Participation
► Failure to report the morbidity and mortality to Authorities is Illegal. [1.] [6.]
► In most United States, Children are minors when less than 18 years of age.
► The United Nations define Youth as persons between the ages of 15-24.
The following are examples of the potential consequences when Child Athlete Abuse Syndrome is Covered-up and Not-Reported: The Judge ruled Tuesday, July 30, 2013, that Penn State’s then-president Graham Spanier, retired university vice president Gary Schultz, then-athletic director Tim Curley will be tried on charges of cover-up, perjury, obstruction, endangering the welfare of children, failure to properly report suspected abuse, hiding evidence from investigators and lying to the grand jury, and conspiracy from the case against Coach Jerry Sandusky, a former Penn State assistant football coach, who was convicted for sexually preying on and abusing boys. [By Tim Polzer, July 30, 2013 Sports Illustrated Wire]
Child Athlete Abuse Syndrome and Cruelty to Children in Sports, Recreation and Exercise (SRE) are matters of importance to Doctors and Health Care Personnel.
They should summons all Doctors and Health Care Personnel into action for the Awareness and Prevention of these Child Athlete Preventable, Not-Accidental morbidities and mortalities.
At any given time, one or another of the three adults might be blameful. All three are mandated reporters in most of the United States. This publication’s 3 main objectives are to:
1. Prevent Child Athlete Abuse Syndrome (CAAS) and Cruelty to Child and Youth Athletes, who participate in Sports, Recreation and Exercise (SRE)
2. Promote Athlete Safety 1st
3. Prevent Criminal and Civil Risks for “Problematic Coaches” who don’t know their legal relationship with Children who participate in SRE
These objectives are to be accomplished by utilizing Education, Teaching, Scholarship, Research, Advocacy and Legislation.
“Problematic caretakers” will continue maltreating and abusing athletes as long as they believe they can get away with it.
Most individuals have a clear understanding of the meaning of violence.
But the laws, policies and practices that are in place to protect children outside of sport are not always applied to organized SRE play. Within certain sports, there are a variety of definitions and situational circumstances that distort the meaning of the word, violence.
“Violence in sport can be defined as behavior that causes harm, occurs outside of the rules of the sport and is unrelated to the competitive objectives of the activity.” [2.] That is the definition by sports concerns.
Violence against children is universally defined and superior to sports. Let’s be clear from the beginning. Child Athlete Abuse Syndrome and Cruelty to Children in SRE is medical doctor business. They should summons all doctors for awareness and prevention of Child Athlete morbidity and mortality.
If “problematic coaches and parents” are the culprits, their unlawful behaviors should trigger Forensic Medicine Investigations immediately following the incidents.
Child is defined as a human less than the age of majority, usually 18 years in each United State. The United Nations define youth as persons between the ages of 15 and 24.
UNESCO understands that young people are a heterogeneous group in constant evolution and that the experience of ‘being young’ varies enormously across regions and within countries.” Minor Youth would be age 15-18. [3.]
When Child is used in this publication, minor youth are also implied. Coaches, Parents, Guardians and every Caretaker cross the line, when they cause, create or allow others to cause or create, directly or indirectly, circumstances that push and punish Child and Youth Athletes beyond their Physical and Emotional Limits and perpetrate Sexual Abuse.
Doctors and Health Care Personnel cross the line when they cover-up or fail to document and Report Forensic Histories, Physical Examinations and Treatments for Child Athlete Abuse Syndrome. Doctors and Health Care Personnel risk Criminal Charges for Failure to Report Child Abuse and potential Civil Law Suits, when unreported Child Abuse escalates because it was not reported.
All Reporters have immunity to HIPPA laws and anonymity from their identity disclosure. Child Athletes and Youth Athletes, less than 18, are Children first and Athletes second participating in SRE during every nanosecond. Child Athletes (<18) are defined and governed by their Age of Minority, not the activity in which they participate.
“No Sport is a Kingdom unto its own,”…. “No one is above the Law.” said former Secretary of State and avid Sport Fan, Condeleezza Rice. [11.]
The Code of Silence in Amateur Sports from administrations down to Coaches is nothing but a cover-up for bad Coaching behaviors and Child Athlete dangers. For example: The Case of the Penn State alleged cover-up will be tried later this year (2013)
Every Child is covered by the Umbrella of Child Protection Law on every inch of ground, and every venue, during every nanosecond of time. That Umbrella is passed from Caretaker to Caretaker as Children pass from one venue to another. Children are never without the Umbrella of Child Protection Law, until they reach the age of adulthood, 18 in most United States.
Child and Youth Athletes Do Not relinquish their Human Rights to the Coach, School, Athletic Association or anyone when they sign-up to participate in Sports, Recreation and Exercise.
There are 2 different groups of Amateur Athletes under consideration i.e. Children and Adult Athletes.
This report is about Child Athlete Abuse Syndrome, but most of the content it is applicable to Youth and Adult Athletes.
All Coaches of Child Athletes, age less than 18, are Temporary Substitute Caretakers of Children, while the Children are in the Care, Custody and Control of the Coach during their participation in Sports, Recreation and Exercise.
Child Abuse Statutes and other Legal Statutes in Adult Criminal Court are applicable, depending on the state court. In some states complex issues can be tried in both Family and Adult Criminal Courts simultaneously and it is not double jeopardy. For example in KY see KRS 620.120.
However, children victims and witnesses have Rights in Court. Children should not testify in public, photographed and videotaped court rooms for many reasons.
Conversely, Adult (>18) Amateur Athletes in Sports Recreation and Exercise, College, Olympics and elsewhere enter into a Fiduciary Trust Standard of Care when they commit to play-for and provide-their-athletic-abilities in exchange for their Participation with Proper Care, Safety, Welfare and possibly Education. Legal Statutes in Adult Criminal Court are applicable.
Problematic Abusers will continue maltreating and abusing as long as they believe they can get away with it.
Unfortunately the Will to Enforce the Law is the greatest Prevention and Deterrence of Child and Youth Athlete Abuse.
Prevent Child Athlete Cruelty and Abuse. Stop Coaches, Parents and Doctors from Crossing the Criminal and Civil Lines. U.S REP. GEORGE MILLER ASKED GAO TO INVESTIGATE YOUTH ATHLETIC CLUBS’ CHILD ABUSE ALLEGATIONS And Expand Investigation into Child Abuse Reporting Laws to Include Athletics, Extracurricular Activities
Everyone, including Doctors, Parents, Health Care Personnel, Coaches, and the entire Athletic Community will report and Pre-Pubescent and Adolescent Children will self report Child Athlete Abuse Syndrome, not delay, once they understand Child and Youth Athlete Rights, which will be made “Crystal Clear”, under the new amended 111-320 Public Law and once it becomes Public Policy following promulgation, announcement and dissemination. [U.S. Rep Miller asks GAO to Expand Investigation into Child Abuse Reporting Laws to Include Athletics, Extracurricular Activities Jun 18, 2013 Issues: Labor, Wages and Benefits Committee on Education and the Workforce http://democrats.edworkforce.house.gov/press-release/miller-asks-gao-expand-investigation-child-abuse-reporting-laws-include-athletics ] [ http://www.cappaa.com/u-s-rep-george-miller-d-calif-asked-gao-to-investigate-youth-athletic-clubs-child-abuse-allegations ]
“Parens Patriae” Doctrine Grants Power and Authority of the State to protect minor Children, age less than 18, and other persons who are legally unable to protect themselves.
The Etymology of “Parens Patriae” is from Latin meaning Government is “Parent of the Nation”
“Parens Patriae” doctrine is the legal framework for the Special Standard of Child Care STATES MUST COMPLY WITH FEDERAL LAW, CAPTA 2010
• State Child Abuse Performance Procedures and Actions should reflect CAPTA 2010 because of the Federal Funds and Grants received by States
• States are mandated to alter their powers, duties and management functions satisfying CAPTA 2010 compliance with the purposes for which the Federal Funds and Grants are made available to States by Federal Law
◙ In U.S., the State is the “Supreme Guardian” of all Children but must satisfying CAPTA 2010 compliance with the purposes for which the Federal Funds and Grants are made available to States by Federal Law
◙ If Parents, Guardians and Substitute Caretakers such as teachers and Coaches are Unable, Unwilling or Fail to Protect their Children or other Children when they are in the custody and control of Substitute Caretakers like Coaches:
◙ The Government has the poser and will Protect Child Safety and ensure proper Child Care
◙ The State has the power / authority to take action to Protect the Child from harm. [46.]
◙ Tripartite Relationship = PARENT + CHILD + STATE
◙ “Parens Patriae” Balances the Rights and Responsibilities among Parents-Child-State as guided by Federal Laws
◙ The Umbrella of Child Protection follows children wherever they go; in every venue Same Tripartite Relationship exists for the Coach Coach-Caretaker + Child-Athlete + State
◙ It is Permissible for the Coach-Caretaker to use His/Her Methods of Coaching children in Sports, Recreation and Exercise (SRE):
◙ Providing the Coach complies with the Special Standards of Care issued by State for a Child
◙ The Tripartite Coach-Caretaker + Child-Athlete + State Relationship is In Effect during Practices, Camps, Over-Nights, Travel Teams, Closed Practices. (These are the “Be Vigilant for Parents and Guardians Venues”)
◙ For Children the Supreme Power of the State following Federal CAPTA 2010 mandates are in Effect On Every inch of Ground, Every Second of Time in the United States [ http://www.cappaa.com/save-child-athletes-from-cruelty-and-abuse ] [ http://www.cappaa.com/category/child-athlete-abuse-syndrome ] [ http://www.cappaa.com/save-child-athletes-from-cruelty-and-abuse ]
1. Child Athlete Abuse Syndrome: Medical-Legal and Forensic Definition http://www.cappaa.com/child-athlete-abuse-syndrome-medical-legal-and-forensic-definition
2. Conversation with Paul Melia and Karri Dawson live, beyond the Cheers
4. Surgeon General’s Workshop on Making Prevention of Child Maltreatment a National Priority: Implementing Innovations of a Public Health Approach, Surgeon General’s Workshop Proceedings Lister Hill Auditorium, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland March 30–31, 2005
8. The Great Football Coach (Or Basketball Coach) research paper. by Micheal B. Minix, Sr., M.D.
107. TRUE SPORT LIVES HERE – Anastasia, G. // George, D
119. WOMEN’S SPORTS FOUNDATION – Addressing the Issue of Verbal, Physical and Psychological Abuse of Athletes: The Foundation Position
PATHOLOGICAL IMPACT OF BRADSHAW COACHING ON THE 1961 UNIVERSITY OF KENTUCKY FOOTBALL CLASS link: http://www.cappaa.com/1962-university-of-kentucky-football-athlete-abuse-survey
FIRST 2008 SURVEY RESULTS:
I. Psychological Athlete Abuse Survey:
The Psychological (Emotional) Athlete Abuses, at the hands of Charlie Bradshaw and his assistants, that were sustained by the last team recruited by Coach Blanton Collier and his assistants, was Post Traumatic Shock Reaction (Disorder), a condition similar to that of Vietnam veterans, according to 2 psychologists close to the University of Kentucky football program in 1962 and professionally experienced with Vietnam veterans.
Their concerns prompted us to survey our 1961-1962 University of Kentucky freshman team. The result was “A Longitudinal and Retrospective Study of The Impact of Coaching Behaviors on the 1961-1962 University of Kentucky Football Wildcats”, Kay Collier McLaughlin, Ph.D., Micheal B. Minix Sr. M.D., Twila Minix, R.N., Jim Overman, Scott Brogdon
100% of the players who responded to the survey and who from recollections of their football experience in 1961-1962 manifest some degree of Post Traumatic Stress Reaction (Disorder) from the physical and psychological athlete abuse from Charlie Bradshaw and assistant coach perpetrators. 100% suffered verbal and psychological (emotional) abuse. Other more serious emotional conditions were evident but not surveyed.
II. Physical Athlete Abuse Survey
The total population of players on the 1961-1962 University of Kentucky Freshman Football Team was _____48______ at the beginning of the 1961 Fall season.
A total of ___47__players were mailed the questionnaire. One of the players was never found.
47 of 48 (97.9%) of the players or their families were contacted and provided with study questions.
A total of ______24______players responded to the study questionnaire.
_____1___ player was excluded because of random error.
A total of ____23_____players made up the sample population included in this study.
100% of the players were Caucasian.
The average age was ____18 ____ in 1961-1962.
100% of the players were male.
Their religious affiliations were not determined in this survey study.
___63__%__(30 players)__of the original 48 players were from Kentucky.
____37__%__(18 players)__were from outside Kentucky.
A total of ___55_____% team replied with answers to the questions.
A total of ____45____% team did not reply with answers to the questions.
A total of ____20_____% of team families replied with answers to the questions for their deceased member, because they knew the answers. They only answered the questions they knew.
Of the population sample of players who replied to the questions the following were the results:
A total of __100____% of the players in this sample met at least one positive coaching abuse criterion as described in the method. Every player who answered received multiple forms of abuse.
“The physical abuse was so common place (20+ times per player per practice) ……..it seemed the Coaches were gunning for them”, one player said.
100% of the football athletes received no water during conditioning, work-outs and practices.
A total of __21____% were struck by a coach’s fist, or punched one or more times.
__26____% forearmed by coaches one or more times in the face.
___9___% kicked by the coaches one or more times.
___4___% teeth were broken by the coaches fists
___13___% received broken or injured bones
___13___% were head butted by the coaches one or more times in the face.
A total of ___61___% received no medical attention for their football injuries that occurred during practice one or more times. .
A total of ___52___% played while they were injured.
A total of ___52___% had improper medical or surgical treatment
A total of ___9___% were told according to a second opinion that their treatments were improper by the team physicians at the University of Kentucky.
In addition ___30____% offered additional coaches’ mistreatments that were not asked in this survey.
In addition ___9____% offered additional coaches’ physical abuse not asked as a question in this survey study.
Male life expectancy hit a record 75.2 years in 2004, the federal Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recently announced.
13 of the 1961 Freshman team members, continued with Bradshaw in the Fall of 1962, according to football program.
One freshman, the last player signed by Coach Collier in late December, 1961, who enrolled in the Spring Semester, January 1962, continued with Bradshaw in the Fall of 1962 as a red shirt.
Another player was attending school on football scholarship but not playing football and not a member of the team in the Fall of 1962. He finished UK having never played football under Bradshaw in an agreement facilitated by basketball head coach, Coach Adolph Rupp.
Only 10 players from the 1961 freshmen team of the 13 were included in the Thin Thirty team picture.
2 Thin Thirty 1961 Freshman who remained with Bradshaw are deceased. Both suffered fatal heart attacks.
4 “Pullout” 1961 Freshman who did not continue with Bradshaw in the Fall of 1962 are deceased.
Football players are generally in good physical condition. Most college football players are taken care of well. Among the 8,961 pro-football players born in the last 50 years, at least 130 are already deceased.
Among 4,382 professional baseball players, 31 are known to have died. That means 1 in every 69 football players is deceased compared to 1 in every 154 baseball players.
14 % of the pro-football players born in the last 50 years are deceased = 1 / 69
11.4 % of the last team recruited by Coach Blanton Collier are deceased. = 12 / 105 players. 6 Upperclassmen and 6 freshmen in the fall of 1961.
27 % of The Thin Thirty are Deceased = 8 / 30
These include both freshmen and upperclassmen.
Their ages now would be about 65-66. (when published 2012)
30 % of The Thin Thirty Upperclassmen are deceased or = 6/20
12.5 % Of the 1961 UK Freshmen Football team are deceased. These include The Thin Thirty Freshmen members + Freshmen “Pull Outs” = 6 / 48
20 % of The Thin Thirty freshmen are deceased = 2 / 10
10.5 % of the “Pull Out” freshmen are deceased = 4 / 38 The percentage deceased for The Thin Thirty Freshmen, who remained with Bradshaw the 1962 season was near double The “Pull Out” Freshmen football players.
THE 2nd SURVEY STUDY RESULTS
The total population of players on the 1961-1962 University of Kentucky Freshman Football Team was _____48______
A total of ___47__players or their families, if the player was deceased, were mailed the questionnaire
_________1_______player was not found.
A total of ______31______players responded
_____1_______ random error was excluded.
A total of ____30________players were included in this survey study sample population.
The following were the questions and how they were answered:
Would you want you son to play football for a coach like Charlie Bradshaw as Bradshaw behaved in 1962 ?
No son ____ 3% or 1 / 30_______
Have you forgiven Charlie Bradshaw for mistreating you?
Yes___46.5 % ____ No___50 %____ N/A___3.5 %__
Are you working on forgiving Charlie Bradshaw?
Yes___14.8%____ No____51.9 % _____
ince Bear Bryant, the 2 winningest University of Kentucky Football coaches are Bear Bryant and Blanton Collier. Coach Blanton Collier is winningest coach against Tennessee.
• “Coach Bear Bryant coached Kentucky 1946-1953 seasons. He compiled W-60 L-23 T-5 record in 8 years. “Bryant’s 60 victories are still a UK football record for head coaches. Bryant UK W-68.18%.
• Bryant UK vs Tennessee W-1 L-5 T-2
• “Blanton Collier coached UK 8 years and compiled W-41 L-36 T-3 1954 to 1961.
• Coach Collier is the winningest coach against Tennessee W-5 L-2 T-1.
• Coach Blanton Collier Career at UK W-51.25%
• Coach Blanton Collier Career at Cleveland Browns (after UK) W-76 L-34 T-2 W-69.1%
• Coach Rich Brooks W- 45.3% Coach Joker Phillips W- 35.1%
Charlie Bradshaw (who followed Coach Collier at UK) won 38.6% of his games during his tenure as head University of Kentucky football coach. [Official Site University of Kentucky Wildcats]
How The Safe Sport Act Could Stop Child Olympian Sexual Abuse
t’s a new regime.” That’s how Nancy Hogshead-Makar, the CEO of Champion Women, describes the sweeping changes mandated by the recently passed Safe Sport Act. Aimed at protecting athletes from sexual abuse, the legislation comes in the wake of numerous, highly publicized accusations against a former doctorwith USA Gymnastics.
“It’s a new regime.” That’s how Nancy Hogshead-Makar, the CEO of Champion Women, describes the sweeping changes mandated by the recently passed Safe Sport Act. The new legislation, which became law January 30, 2018 is Aimed at protecting athletes from sexual abuse.
“It took a federal statute, S.534 Law, Safe Sport Act, to get the Olympic Committee to change.”
That statute is known as the Safe Sports Act mandates certain protections for young athletes, especially in cases of sexual abuse accusations.
The law requires that all youth sports organizations report sexual abuse allegations to local law enforcement.
Previously, governing bodies like the USAG, the USOC, and the many youth sports organizations associated, usually ignored local aw enforcement and handled such cases internally.
With the Safe Sports Act, it’s now a crime to adjudicate sexual abuse accusations in-house without reporting to the police within 24 hours.
Additionally, victims of sexual abuse are to be compensated with a mandatory minimum of $150,000, and the statute of limitations will be extended. With the Safe Sports Act, that countdown won’t start until a person recognizes that they’ve been abused. That’s key, because as too many victims have discovered, abuse doesn’t always register as such right away.
The new legislation also creates an independent body called SafeSport, which will be responsible for ensuring compliance and investigating complaints.
SafeSport will be provided with a $1 million annual budget, and due to its outside status, should bring far less bias into investigations of abuse.
Before the Safe Sport Act, Hogshead-Makar says the USOC depended on “no duty” rules. Legally speaking, she says that meant as long as they stayed completely out of any situation involving accusations of abuse, they couldn’t be held liable. “The less they did, the less likely it was that a court would hold them responsible for sexual abuse,” she tells Bustle.
But with the passage of the Safe Sport Act, Congress has now taken that option away, making everyone involved responsible for addressing sexual abuse that occurs on their watch. [How The Safe Sport Act Could Stop The Next Larry Nassar By Jessicah Lahitou, Jan 2018]
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3. International Classification of Disease, 9th edition,
4. “The Battered-Child Syndrome”, C. Henry Kempe, M.D.; Frederic N. Silverman, M.D.; Brandt F. Steele, M.D.; William Droegemueller, M.D. ; Henry K. Silver, M.D., JAMA. 1962;181(1):17-24.
5. Weekly World News, Jan 20, 1981, Health News
6. Child Athlete Abuse Syndrome, “A New Disease”, Athlete Abuse Prevention Summit, Omni Parker House, Boston, MA. April 29, 2011, Micheal B. Minix, Sr., M.D. and http://www.cappaa.com/
7. EXCESSIVE EXERCISE AS CORPORAL PUNISHMENT IN MOORE v. WILLIS INDEPENDENT SCHOOL DISTRICT – HAS THE FIFTH CIRCUIT “TOTALLY ISOLATED” ITSELF IN ITS POSITION? Author By Kristina Rico Villanova Sports and Entertainment Law Journal, Villanova University, CASENOTE: 9 Vill. Sports & Ent. L.J. 351. 2002
8. By Allie Grasgreen : http://www.insidehighered.com/news/2012/07/13/freeh-report-faults-penn-state-athletics-culture#ixzz20Vl35J8o Inside Higher Ed
9. West’s Encyclopedia of American Law, edition 2.
10. Citizenship Through Sports Alliance (CTSA) published the Report Card on Youth Sport in America 2005
11. State of The Nation, Candy Crowly CNN News, Condoleezza Rice interview
12. Preventing Injuries in Sports. Recreation amd Exercise. CDC Injury Center, September 07, 2006.
13. Survey, Safe Kids Worldwide, sponsor Johnson & Johnson
14. McLeod v. Grant County School Dist. No. 128,255 P.2d 360,362 (Wash. 1953
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17. Personal email from C.A.R.E. Director, Kate Dean, and the KY Dept of Community Based Services (DCBS)
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21. National Association for Sport and Physical Education. National Standards for Athletic Coaches: Quality Coaches, Quality Sports. Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt Publishing Co; 1995:1-124
22. Albany Government Law Review, Amanda Sherman, Staff Writer BY ROBERT MAGEE, FEBRUARY 23, 2009, Football Death Leads to Reckless Homicide Charges: Kentucky Embarks on Unprecedented Case,]
23. Medical Records from the Coach Jason Stinson Trial
24. Child Abuse Prevention and Reauthorization Act 2010, PL 111-320 http://www.acf.hhs.gov/programs/cb/laws_policies/cblaws/capta/capta2010.pdf
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Temperature effects on mortality: Potential confounding by air pollution and possible
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28. Johnson & Johnson and Safe Kids USA’s Coalition, http://www.jnj.com/connect/news/all/safe-kids-usa-and-johnson-and-johnson-aim-to-help-parents-and-coaches-protect-young-athletes-on-and-off-the-field, Founded in 1987 as the National SAFE KIDS Campaign by Children’s National Medical Center with support from Johnson & Johnson, Safe Kids Worldwide is a 501© (3) non-profit organization located in Washington, D.C.
29. American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons, http://www6.aaos.org/news/Pemr/releases/release.cfm?releasenum=889]
30. Stop Sports Injuries http://www.stopsportsinjuries.org/media/statistics.aspx
31. The Longitudinal and Retrospective Study of The Impact of Coaching Behaviors on the 1961-1962 University of Kentucky Football Wildcats. [31.] by Kay Collier McLaughlin, Ph.D., Micheal B. Minix Sr. M.D., Twila Minix, R.N., Jim Overman, Scott Brogdon 2007-2008
32. Athlete Abuse, When Coaches Cross the Line, Suite 101, Terry Ziegler, Jan, 16, 2010
33. Jefferson County Public Schools Athletics and Activities Manual 2009-2010 Created by: JCPS Office of Activities and Athletics Revised July 17, 2009 Dr. Sheldon Berman, Superintendent
34. NBC 3 Louisville (WAVE): Community reacts to Stinson’s not guilty verdict, Pleasure Ridge Park : KY : USA | Sep 17, 2009
[35.] Heat Island Effect, EPA, U.S. Environmental Protection agency http://www.epa.gov/hiri/research/index.htm
36. Personal communications with multiple U.S.Representatives and Senators