PREVENTABLE, NOT-ACCIDENTAL INJURIES AND DEATHS OF CHILDREN (<18) AND YOUTH (15-24) PARTICIPATING IN SPORTS, RECREATION AND EXERCISE ARE SECONDARY TO CHILD ATHLETE ABUSE SYNDROME (CAAS) “Participation in Sports, Recreation, and Exercise (SRE) is increasingly popular and widespread in American culture…. Recent reports estimate millions emergency visits occur each year for injuries related to participation in sports and recreation.” [12.] Everyone knows SRE accidents happen, while playing by the rules of the game, in safe SRE environments, with proper athlete protection, coaching supervision and conduct. Serious Injuries and Deaths that occur during blameless circumstances are Inherent and Natural to the game that athletes play. These incidents are called Accidental and Not-Preventable. An aggressive clean football tackle that fractures an arm is an Accident and Not Preventable Conversely, Preventable, Not Accidental Injuries and Deaths occur at a rate of approximately 50% of sports-related Children’s Injuries and are not Inherent and Natural to the game that athletes play. “About 3.5 million children age 14 and under are treated for sports-related injuries annually, and half may be preventable, Safe Kids USA officials say.” [28.] [29.] [30.] “Each year in the United States, an estimated 38 million children play organized sports, and basketball, baseball/softball, football, soccer, and cheerleading are among the most popular.1 Yet, sports injuries are common, resulting in 3.5 million medical visits annually.2 Most of these injuries are preventable.” [13.][16.] These references are used in numerous references and commonly cited in Youth Sports Safety articles. The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Foundation partners with Corporations such as Johnson & Johnson to outsource and collaborate in surveys and studies, cost savings innovations. The above is attributed to CDC and partner J&J. [13.][16.] Preventable, Not Accidental Injuries and Deaths of SRE Children (<18) and Youth (15-24) Athletes are secondary to Child Athlete Abuse Syndrome (CAAS), the name that defines the clustering of pathologies resulting from severe punishments, injury mismanagements, such as concussion, over-use exercise, physical assaults and participation during severe weather conditions i.e. dangerous heat index, poor air quality and electrical storms to name a few. CAAS Recognition Education requires a definition to enable Doctors, Health Care Personnel and everyone to identify “how it looks”, which was the first question I was asked by a Prevent Child Abuse Kentucky staff member. She asked me essentially to define these disorders. The following definition was formulated and now is established and used by many Child Athlete Safety advocates, researchers and reporters. Child Athlete Abuse Syndrome is a Short Title for a Clustering of Child (<18) or Youth (15-18) Athlete Serious Injury, Disease and/or Death secondary to: ► Physical endangerment, maltreatment and/or abuse ► Psychological (Emotional) endangerment, maltreatment and/or abuse ► Sexual Abuse ► Failed child custodial protection ► Negligent care giving supervision ► Human rights violations ► That were inflicted, caused, created, or allowed to be inflicted, caused, created, directly or indirectly by the Problematic Coach, including the Strength Training, Conditioning and other specialty Coach, Problematic Parent or other Problematic Caretaker Person who has Child and Youth Athlete custodial protection, supervision, care and control during Sports, Recreation and Exercise Participation ► Failure to report the morbidity and mortality to Authorities is Illegal. [1.] [6.] ► In most United States, Children are minors when less than 18 years of age. ► The United Nations define Youth as persons between the ages of 15-24. Child Athlete Abuse Syndrome and Cruelty to Children in Sports, Recreation and Exercise (SRE) are matters of importance to Doctors and Health Care Personnel. They summons all Doctors and Health Care Personnel into action for the Awareness and Prevention of these Child Athlete Preventable, Not-Accidental morbidities and mortalities. The history behind the CAAS definition begins with Kentucky Wildcat Football. As our 1961 Kentucky Wildcat Freshman Class prepared for our UK Football Reunion scheduled for June 2008, following revelations in The Thin Thirty book by Shannon Ragland in 2007, concerns developed about our teammates after they reported experiences 50 years ago, as teammates returned information for the Reunion. We realized that our teammates had suffered morbidity and mortality at the hands of the UK Football Coaches and the signs and symptoms had lasted over the past 50 years. The tragedy had been covered-up and hushed for 50 years. We were prompted to survey the morbidity and mortality of our 1961-1962 University of Kentucky Freshman Football Class. It was the “first study of its kind”, said Frank Deford of Sports Illustrated. The research study was titled: The Longitudinal and Retrospective Study of The Impact of Coaching Behaviors on the 1961-1962 University of Kentucky Football Wildcats. [31.] The Physical and Psychological Abuse, Assaults and Maltreatment study results are published: That study evolved into the definition of Child athlete Abuse, “A New Disease”. CHILD ATHLETE ABUSE SYNDROME IS “MEDICALIZED” • Medicalized: To identify or categorize a condition or behavior as being a disorder requiring medical treatment or intervention [2.] • CAAS IS LEGITIMATE DIANOSIS WITH ICD-9 CODES. Every classification of Child Abuse in every venue is Medicalized. The “International Classification of Disease, 9th edition, (ICD-9) Clinical Modification is a standardized classification of disease, injuries, and causes of death, by etiology and anatomic localization and codified into a 6-digit number, which allows clinicians, statisticians, politicians, health planners, health insurance and others to speak a common language, both US and internationally”. ICD-9s are also used to bill medical insurance by Doctors.[3.] Example: If the Coach strikes a Child Athlete in the left eye with his fist during sport participation and fractures the left orbital floor, the ICD-9 Code and modifier Codes are: • Closed fracture of orbital floor (blow out) 802.6 • Modifier - Child Physical Abuse Confirmed T74.12 • Modifier - Child Abuse Perpetrator is Known and is the Coach YO7 PLEASE SEE THE CLINICAL PODCAST by linking to the URL below: Title: CHILD ATHETE ABUSE SYNDROME, “A NEW DISEASE” CHILD ATHLETE ABUSE SYNDROME HAS BEEN “ILLEGALIZED” Battered Child Syndrome (BCS) was reported in 1962. It evolved into Child Protection Laws. [4.] Child Abuse Prevention, Treatment and Reauthorization Act 2010, Public Law 111-320 was first enacted into Federal Law in 1972 and has been amended several times, most recently 2010. [24.] It will hopefully be amended again because of the reaction to the Penn State Coach Sandusky tragedy. “Forcing kids into sports is called “a type of Child Abuse.” Some parents abuse their children by beating them, others by pushing them to succeed in sports to the point of serious injury.” In 1981, 19 years after BCS, Dr. Edwin R. Guise and Dr. Richard M. Ball, in disapproval, first described the following terms. Dr. Edwin R. Guise of Henry Ford Hospital in Detroit called it “Socially Approved Athletic Child Abuse.” Dr. Guise has reported that “swimmers shoulder” is a condition so severe it requires surgery and is on the increase among teenagers who are team swimmers. “Another Bone Specialist” Dr. Richard M. Ball of Plainfield, N.J. condemned the grueling training programs for adolescents as a “Battered-Child-Athlete-Syndrome”. Dr. Ball said teenage swimmers were developing serious should tendonitis that might require surgery. Dr. Edwin R. Guise and Dr. Richard M. Ball are credited for the terms • “Socially Approved Athletic Child Abuse” • “Battered-Child-Athlete-Syndrome” [5.] This reporter began defining CAAS in 2007. Forty-nine years after the report of Battered Child Syndrome, April 29, 2011, Micheal B. Minix, Sr., M.D., presented Child Athlete Abuse Syndrome (CAAS), “A New Disease” at the Athlete Abuse Prevention Summit, Omni Parker House, Boston, MA. [6.] CAAS is Called a “A NEW DISEASE” because many in the entire athletic community, including Coaches, leadership officials, witnesses, often the media and Systems In Crisis, described below, have covered-up Sexual, Physical and Psychological Abuse and attempted to spin athletic injuries and deaths as unfortunate byproducts of playing the game. Instead they are Preventable, Not Accidental Child Athlete Injuries. The Penn State Tragedy is a prime example. The Sandusky Tragedy has enlightened the public about Abnormal Criminal Behaviors of Coaches and leadership officials who perpetrate and then attempt to cover-up CAAS. Many states and teams have similar problems. Former Penn State head football “Coach Joe Paterno seriously faulted” in the Coach Jerry Sandusky Tragedy that found Sandusky guilty on 48 counts of Child Sexual Abuse. The self-imposed investigation of Penn State notes that University President Graham Spanier, Senior Vice President Gary Schultz and Athletic Director Tim Curley altered their decision to report the sexual abuse crimes after a meeting with the head Coach Paterno, who died in January 2012, two months after the story broke. [8.] “No Sport is a Kingdom unto its own”; “No one is above the Law.” said former Secretary of State, Condeleezza Rice. [11.] The Law is designed to work for everyone, not cherry-picked to gratify cover-ups. The Offender that causes or allows to be caused serious Child Athlete Not-Accidental, Preventable Morbidity and Mortality, has been “let out of the locker room” and newly exposed. The Penn State shameful devastation has begun the descent of “Socially Approved Athletic Child Abuse”. But a great deal remains to be done such as the correction of the definition of Caretaker in the language of CAPTA, PL 111-320, followed by education and awareness. Coaches are in charge of conditioning, boot camp, practice and games. Coaches should be familiar with Child Abuse Laws, the Rules of Law concerning Child and Youth who participate in Sports. They are allowed to Coach utilizing their methods providing they abide by Child Protection Laws, if they want to avoid the Risk of Litagation. Protective Custody and Care-Giving Supervision are transferred from the Parent and Guardian to the Teacher for curricular activities and to the Coach during extracurricular school activities. The Parent, Guardian, Teacher and Coach have equal Duty under the Law, when they have custody and control of the Child. They have a Duty to Protect the Child. The premise for this duty is that a Child is compelled to attend school and must be separated from the Parent or Guardian. [14.] Another important part of my background and a contributing factor in the definition of CAAS is my training as a “Trainer” of Kentucky Doctors about how to Recognize Child Abuse (CA) during Child Abuse Recognition Education (C.A.R.E). I was certified in 2009 to go out to KY Doctors’ offices and teach Doctors and their staff how to recognize CA. That also translated to Sports, Recreation and Exercise (SRE) for me. C.A.R.E. was sponsored and supported by Prevent Child Abuse KY, Dept. of Community Based Services and KMA, funded by the KY Cabinet of Health and Family Services and instructed by the U of L Dept. Pediatric Forensic Medicine. During training, I asked the C.A.R.E. instructors if Coaches were "Temporary Substitute Caretakers". The reply in a personal email from the C.A.R.E. director, about 2 months later after her colleague’s’ investigation follows. The Director was also interested in CAAS. She called it "good news" for my Child Athlete Abuse Syndrome endeavor: “Our agency [DCBS] investigates abuse and neglect allegations involving situations where a person is providing care, has custody or has control of a child. Teachers, camp counselors, bus drivers, babysitters, grandparents, coaches etc fit in to that category if they are left to care for a child and the parent is not present for supervision. We are investigating these type situations in this manner across the state. If [DCBS] staff have questions about whether a person falls into these categories, they can consult with Central Office or their regional attorney.” [17.] Verbal and signed Permissions to Participate and Waivers in Sports, Recreation and Exercise (SRE) and other activities granted by Parents and Guardians do not permit Criminal, Unlawful behavior such as Physical, Psychological and/or Sexual Abuse, Gross Negligence and Human Rights Disorders. Child Abuse Laws are in effect on every inch of ground during every second of time. [24.] On the Civil Litigation side, a parent or guardian’s agreement to waive a minor child’s rights to sue a provider for harm, “shifting the risk of damage awards away from the sponsoring sports organization, will not be enforced, because courts have consistently refused to enforce waivers against Children. Parents and Guardians cannot relinquish a minor Child’s Rights”. [18.] “The use of physical discipline, or corporal punishment, on children has a long and sordid tradition in America’s homes, schools and athletic programs. The recent deaths of middle school, high school, college, semi-professional and professional athletes indicates that the use of excessive exercise and punishment by school officials and Coaches Can Kill.” That is a horrible thought, when one considers the objective of SRE is Physical and Holistic Fitness. “Athletic officials and the media attempt to spin athletic injuries and deaths as unfortunate byproducts of playing the game. “Despite their spin, ‘coaches tweak and torque the athlete to see how far [they] can be pushed.’ “Today athletes are treated as superhuman-heroes who are expected to play even when hurt, sick or fatigued.” “According to common law standards, public school teachers and Coaches may impose reasonable but not excessive force to discipline a child. “The use of excessive force or exercise to discipline a child violates that child’s substantive due process rights.” [7.] Athlete Abuse follows when Coaches cross the line and exceed the Physical and Emotional Limits and/or Sexually Abuse an Athlete. [32.] The American Academy of Pediatrics SRE Policies for Child Athletes include: “• Availability of Qualified Coaches in organized sports can be key factor in providing safety and a positive experience “• Because most youth sports coaches are volunteers with little or no formal training in child development, they cannot be expected to correctly match demands of a sport with a child’s readiness to participate. “• Educational programs are available for Youth Sports Coaches, but most coaches do not participate. “• Coaches may try to teach what often cannot be learned and blame resulting failures on shortcomings of athletes “• Child Athletes are not “Little Adults” “• Pediatricians can further advocate safe sports participation by promoting better education and training of youth sports coaches. “• Pediatricians can work with sports administrators and coaches within their community and share relevant information on child development, injury assessment, first aid, and injury prevention. and take an active role in developing safety programs while ensuring that existing safety measures are observed” [20.] • Standards for coaching competency are available and certification for youth sports coaches should address these competencies. [21.] “On September 17, 2009, a Jefferson County (Kentucky) jury acquitted former Pleasure Ridge Park High School football Coach Jason Stinson of reckless homicide and wanton endangerment in the August 20, 2008 heat-stroke death of football player Max Gilpin” in Adult Criminal Court. Under the Kentucky Penal Code, a person is guilty of reckless homicide when, “with recklessness he causes the death of another person.” {8} A person is acting recklessly if “he fails to perceive a substantial and unjustifiable risk,” and the risk “must be of such nature and degree that failure to perceive it constitutes a gross deviation from the standard of care that a reasonable person would observe in the situation.”{9} These are the questions the jury will be posed with should this case go to trial. [22.] “The trial had been the nation’s first prosecution of a football Coach in a player’s heat-related death. Prosecutors argued that Stinson withheld water from players, ran them excessively, ignored the signs of heat exhaustion being suffered by a number of his players, told the players they would run until someone quit the team, failed to stop the running even as another player collapsed before Gilpin, and ignored specific indications of heat stroke as Gilpin began shaking and stumbling during his final sprints before he collapsed.”[15.] Jefferson County Schools Superintendent, Dr. Sheldon Berman, is commended for his astute, accurate conclusions proclaimed following the trial the summer of 2009 to the death of Max Gilpin in 2008. Dr. Berman, unlike others, got it right. • He was “extremely troubled” by (Coach) Stinson telling players they would run until someone quit. • “Such motivational tools are not acceptable,” Berman said. • In other words, Child Athlete Verbal (Psychological) and Physical Abuse are not acceptable. • “Berman said the Jefferson School District is planning training sessions later this month for coaches, with the goal of teaching them how to use positive motivation with athletes.” • “Dr. Berman and Jefferson County Public Schools to begin relaying air pollution warnings to coaches and had a plan in place to modify outdoor practices according to pollution levels.” • In other words Dr. Berman concluded that Air Pollution with increased ground level Ozone, probably contributed to the death of Max Gilpin as well as the Heat Index. There was an Air Alert with an Pollution Index of 106 with increased Ozone as well as a Heat Index of 94* on August 20, 2008, the day Max Gilpin collapsed in football practice. • Policies are included in Jefferson County Public Schools Athletics and Activities Manual [33.] [34.] Increased ground level Ozone and a dangerously elevated Heat Index combined work synergistically and cause Heat Stroke and Acute Respiratory Stress Disorder (ARDS), never mentioned in the trial, but diagnosed on CAT Scan.[23.] Louisville, KY has the “Heat Island Effect” because it is frequently plagued by both Heat Waves and Ozone. Failure to check the environmental measures can be lethal to Athletes.[35.] “A number of results have been published from demonstrating clear geographical variations in the weather dose health response relationship and the potential synergistic effects on health of heat and air pollution.” [25.] [26.] [27.] CAAS is secondary to SRE in these conditions. Coaches have a Fiduciary Coach-Athlete Responsibility and Trust for Youth Athletes in College and the Olympics. Ignorance of the Law and Overlooking the Law are no excuse and certainly no defense in Court for any type Child or Youth Athlete Abuse. The Bottom Line, Win-At-All-Costs Dysfunctional Sports Community has not included Child Protection, Supervision and Abuse Law into Educational Certification courses. Only 20% of Medical Schools worldwide teach Child Abuse Recognition and Reporting. “Notably, the Report Card indicated an unacceptable rating for sustaining an adequate pool of coaches who are trained in coaching techniques and safety. Clearly, there is a need to focus our attention on coaching preparation requirements.” [10.] Recognition and Reporting of Child Abuse is a widespread problem. Failed Leadership has worsened the problem in Sports, Recreation and Exercise. Additionally, important systems have ignored and/or overlooked the crisis. The following systems advance “Socially Approved Athletic Child Abuse”. The following systems are systems in crisis for Child Abuse in general [1.] and Child Athlete Abuse Syndrome [6.][31.]: • Doctor, Health Care Personnel and Citizen Reporting • Medical and Law Schools • Medical Associations and publications • Attorney Guidelines and Standards for Child Abuse litigation • Law enforcement • Criminal Justice System • Public Health • State and Federal Governments • Child Welfare Systems • School and Non-School Athletic Associations and Federations • Deficient Caretaker Language Definition of Child Abuse Prevention and Reauthorization Act 2010, PL 111-320, Section 3. Paragraph 2. The theme of the article referenced below [ ] is “How gender, manhood and masculinity shaped the tragic events at Sandy Hook Elementary School in Newtown, Connecticut. Our Systems in Crisis indicate that it’s ok to Prevent Child Athlete Abuse Syndrome and the Sandy Hook Elementary School Child Abuse Massacre, as long as you don’t tread on Machohood. So don’t expect remarkable turn-arounds in Child Athlete Abuse Syndrome and tragedys like the Sandy Hook Elementary School Child Abuse Massacre. Most of the following Systems in Crisis were called-out by the Surgeon General of the United States. [Manhood Crisis At The Heart of The Newtown Tragedy: Part I by Jackson Katz, creator and co-creator of three documentary videos. They are Tough Guise: Violence, Media, and the Crisis in Masculinity, Wrestling with Manhood: Boys, Bullying & Battering with Sut Jhally, and Spin the Bottle: Sex, Lies, and Alcohol, with Jean Kilbourne. These films are widely used as educational tools in the U.S. and around the world. He is also the author of two books, The Macho Paradox: Why Some Men Hurt Women and How All Men Can Help] “Parens Patriae” Doctrine Grants Power and Authority of the State to protect minor Children, age less than 18, and other persons who are legally unable to protect themselves. The Etymology of “Parens Patriae” is from Latin meaning Government is “Parent of the Nation”. “Parens Patriae” doctrine is the legal framework for the Special Standard of Child Care’ [9.] The Coach is the Parent on the Field of Play. • In U.S., the State is the “Supreme Guardian” of all Children • If Parents, Guardians and Substitute Caretakers such as Coaches are Unable, Unwilling or Fail to Protect their Children or other Children, when they are in the custody and control of Substitute Caretakers like Coaches, the Government shall Protect Child Safety and ensure proper Child Care, if the Law is enforced properly. • The State has the power and authority to take action to Protect the Child from harm. [46.] • Tripartite Relationship = PARENT + CHILD + STATE • “Parens Patriae” Balances the Rights and Responsibilities among Parents-Child-State as guided by Federal Laws • Same Tripartite Relationship exists for the Coach-Caretaker + Child-Athlete + State • It is Permissible for the Coach-Caretaker to use His/Her Methods of Coaching children in Sports, Recreation and Exercise (SRE) providing the Coach complies with the Special Standards of Care issued by State for a Child • The Tripartite Coach-Caretaker + Child-Athlete + State Relationship is In Effect during Practices, Camps, Over-Nights, Travel Teams, Closed Practices. (These are the “Be Vigilant for Parents and Guardians Venues”) • For Children the Supreme Power of the State is in Effect on Every Inch of Ground, Every Second of Time in the United States and around the entire World U. S. Senate Bill 1877 is presently parked in committee with an amendment to current Caretaker language definition. I have an additional Amendment recommended to several Senators including Senators Rand Paul and Mitch McConnell to be considered when the S.1877 discussion begins. They have reacted positively to my amendment language. [36.] Child SRE Coaches are “Temporary Substitute Caretakers” (TSC) in the eyes of the Public Law 111-320, Child Abuse Prevention Treatment and Reauthorization Act 2010 and in the eyes of the U.S. Surgeon General and the Kentucky Department of Community Based Services (DCBS) and Child Protection Services (CPS). However, the Coach’s role of TSC is not “crystal clear” and has not been heard, reported and promulgated to the ears of doctors, all public citizens. coaches, parents and child athletes. Education, awareness and enforcing the Coach TSC role are the simple solutions to fifty percent of the complex SRE child athlete injury risk management problems. Children Athletes with SRE injuries and deaths will be prevented, athlete safety first will be promoted and coaches will not be blind-sided with criminal and civil litigations and citizens and doctors will report and child athletes will more likely self-report Child Athlete Physical, Psychological and Sexual Maltreatment once the role of the Coach TSC becomes “crystal clear” public policy. Most importantly, Kentucky doctors have a duty to practice with the knowledge and implications of the legal relationship between the Coach Temporary Substitute Caretaker and the Child Athlete’s supreme standard of care. THE FOLLOWING PROPOSED AMENDMENT (A), IS KEY TO THE PREVENTION OF CHILD ATHLETE SEXUAL, PHYSICAL AND EMOTIONAL ABUSE DURING PARTICIPANTION IN SPORTS, RECREATION AND EXERCISE (SRE) AND REPORTING, BECAUSE STATES MUST IMPLEMENT FRFRTAL CHILD PROTECTION PUBLIC LAW 111-320, INCLUDING AMENDMENTS. • {the Following (A) is a Proposed additional Public Health Amendment to Section 3. Paragraph 2. an innovation by Athlete Safety 1st as suggested in 2005 by the U.S. Surgeon General. The New Language is capitalized and a recommended addition to S. 1877 described below}: (A) any recent act or failure to act, on the part of a parent or caretaker, “INCLUDING COACH SUBSTITUTE CARETAKERS OF SCHOOL AND NON-SCHOOL SPORTS, RECREATION AND EXERCISE”, that results in death, serious physical or emotional harm, or sexual abuse or exploitation, or an act or failure to act that presents an imminent risk of serious harm; or • {the Following (B) is a Proposed Amendment S. 1877 by Senators Casey and Boxer Language Capitalized Senate Bill 1877 (S. 1877 currently in Senate Committee awaiting action}: (B) >ANY DELIBERATE ACT<, on the part of an individual other than a parent or caretaker, that results in death, serious physical or emotional harm, or sexual abuse or exploitation, or that presents an imminent risk of serious harm to a child.’ States Are Required to Implement CAPTA 2010, PL 111-320 and its Amendments: • State Child Abuse Performance Procedures and Actions should reflect CAPTA 2010 and further amendments because of Federal Funds and Grants received by States mandate their performance • States are mandated to alter their powers, duties and management functions satisfying CAPTA 2010 compliance with the purposes for which the Federal Funds and Grants are made available to States by Federal Law • The Promulgated, Published, Announced Federal Law Grants and Funds will Promote enlightenment and education of State Agencies. School boards, Athletic Associations, Coaches, Citizens and everyone concerned about Child Protection Laws and Reporting Child Athlete Abuse Syndrome, after the Coach’s Role as TSC is completely understood. References: 1. Surgeon General’s Workshop on Making Prevention of Child Maltreatment a National Priority: Implementing Innovations of a Public Approach, Surgeon General's Workshop Proceedings Lister Hill Auditorium National Institutes of Health Bethesda, Maryland, March 30–31, 2005] 2. Online-Dictionary 3. International Classification of Disease, 9th edition, 4. “The Battered-Child Syndrome”, C. Henry Kempe, M.D.; Frederic N. Silverman, M.D.; Brandt F. Steele, M.D.; William Droegemueller, M.D. ; Henry K. Silver, M.D., JAMA. 1962;181(1):17-24. 5. Weekly World News, Jan 20, 1981, Health News 6. Child Athlete Abuse Syndrome, “A New Disease”, Athlete Abuse Prevention Summit, Omni Parker House, Boston, MA. April 29, 2011, Micheal B. Minix, Sr., M.D. and 7. EXCESSIVE EXERCISE AS CORPORAL PUNISHMENT IN MOORE v. WILLIS INDEPENDENT SCHOOL DISTRICT - HAS THE FIFTH CIRCUIT "TOTALLY ISOLATED" ITSELF IN ITS POSITION? Author By Kristina Rico Villanova Sports and Entertainment Law Journal, Villanova University, CASENOTE: 9 Vill. Sports & Ent. L.J. 351. 2002 8. By Allie Grasgreen : Inside Higher Ed 9. West's Encyclopedia of American Law, edition 2. 10. Citizenship Through Sports Alliance (CTSA) published the Report Card on Youth Sport in America 2005 11. State of The Nation, Candy Crowly CNN News, Condoleezza Rice interview 12. Preventing Injuries in Sports. Recreation amd Exercise. CDC Injury Center, September 07, 2006. 13. Survey, Safe Kids Worldwide, sponsor Johnson & Johnson 14. McLeod v. Grant County School Dist. No. 128,255 P.2d 360,362 (Wash. 1953 15. [Sports Law Year-in-Review January 2010 High School Today, Sports Law Year-In-Review: 2009, By Lee E. Green, J.D., National Federation of High School Athletic Associations] 16. CDC Foundation, Partner With Us, Partnership with Johnson & Johnson to out source surveys and studies, 17. Personal email from C.A.R.E. Director, Kate Dean, and the KY Dept of Community Based Services (DCBS) 18. Malamud et al, Marquette Sports Law Journal, vol 2, Spring 1992, no. 2] 19. Marcia Sprague and Mark Hardin, University of Louisville Journal of Family Law, ARTICLE: COORDINATION OF JUVENILE AND CRIMINAL COURT CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT PROCEEDINGS * 1997, American Bar Association, Spring, 1996 / 1997, 35 U. of Louisville J. of Fam. L. 239 20. AAP, AMERICAN ACADEMY OF PEDIATRICS Vol. 107 No. 6 June 2001, pp. 1459-1462 : Organized Sports for Children and Preadolescents. POLICY STATEMENT, Committee on Sports Medicine and Fitness and Committee on School Health A statement of reaffirmation for this policy was published on September 1, 2007. This policy is a revision of the policy posted on Sept 1, 1989. 21. National Association for Sport and Physical Education. National Standards for Athletic Coaches: Quality Coaches, Quality Sports. Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt Publishing Co; 1995:1-124 22. Albany Government Law Review, Amanda Sherman, Staff Writer BY ROBERT MAGEE, FEBRUARY 23, 2009, Football Death Leads to Reckless Homicide Charges: Kentucky Embarks on Unprecedented Case,] 23. Medical Records from the Coach Jason Stinson Trial 24. Child Abuse Prevention and Reauthorization Act 2010, PL 111-320 25. Evidence for interaction between air pollution and high temperature in the causation of excess mortality. Katsouyanni K, et al, Arch Environ Health. 1993 Jul-Aug;48(4):235-42. Department of Hygiene and Epidemiology, University of Athens, Medical School, Greece] 26. Analitis A., K. Katsouyanni, A. Biggeri, M. Baccini, G. McGregor, P. Michelozzi, 2008: Temperature effects on mortality: Potential confounding by air pollution and possible interactions within the PHEWE project. Epidemiology, 19: S214S214.] 27. Analitis A., K. Katsouyanni, X. Pedeli, U. Kirchmayer, P. Michelozzi and B. Menne, 2008: Investigating the independent and synergistic effects of heat waves and air pollution on health: The EuroHEAT project. Epidemiology, 19: S214S215. Pantazopoulou A, Touloumi G, Tselepidaki I, Moustris K, Asimakopoulos D, Poulopoulou G, Trichopoulos D.] 28. Johnson & Johnson and Safe Kids USA's Coalition,, Founded in 1987 as the National SAFE KIDS Campaign by Children’s National Medical Center with support from Johnson & Johnson, Safe Kids Worldwide is a 501© (3) non-profit organization located in Washington, D.C. 29. American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons,] 30. Stop Sports Injuries 31. The Longitudinal and Retrospective Study of The Impact of Coaching Behaviors on the 1961-1962 University of Kentucky Football Wildcats. [31.] by Kay Collier McLaughlin, Ph.D., Micheal B. Minix Sr. M.D., Twila Minix, R.N., Jim Overman, Scott Brogdon 2007-2008 32. Athlete Abuse, When Coaches Cross the Line, Suite 101, Terry Ziegler, Jan, 16, 2010 33. Jefferson County Public Schools Athletics and Activities Manual 2009-2010 Created by: JCPS Office of Activities and Athletics Revised July 17, 2009 Dr. Sheldon Berman, Superintendent 34. NBC 3 Louisville (WAVE): Community reacts to Stinson's not guilty verdict, Pleasure Ridge Park : KY : USA | Sep 17, 2009 [35.] Heat Island Effect, EPA, U.S. Environmental Protection agency 36. Personal communications with multiple U.S.Representatives and Senators

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