DISCRIMINATION

Discrimination is the realization that People have differences, variations and contrasts and a person or group of persons doe not accept those differences.

Non-Discrimination is the realization that People have differences, variations and contrasts and you accept those differences.

The Religious Freedom Restoration Act was implemented by Jesus and described in (James 2: 8) – “If ye fulfill God’s Royal Law, according to scripture, thou shalt love thy neighbor as thyself, ye do well.”
Jesus did not discriminate. He treated all children of God the same not matter their differences. Jesus served the multitude bread and fish and equally served all God’s Children side by side. (Mat 15: 36) [see Jesus’ definition of Neighbor in Baker’s Evangelical Dictionary]
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Race and Sport

“The issue of race and sport in the United States is somewhat baffling in that many persons would rather it not be addressed at all even though sport has been intricately intertwined with racial issues in the United States throughout the Twentieth Century (e. g., The Black Athlete, 1989).

“Those who would have us omit the topic altogether argue that analyses typically single out the black athlete, and then attempt to explain his/her inordinate success in ways different than we do that of other groups. Critics contend that this approach is racist, since it perpetuates the idea that blacks are different, and often inferior.

“Edwards (1972) asserts that a typical theme resulting from such analyses is that blacks are physically superior, but intellectually inferior, to whites. Hoberman (1997) has further made the case that physical prowess, especially in such sports as basketball, has become a defining characteristic of the African-American community, and that beliefs about physical superiority are closely yoked to an anti-intellectualism that permeates black male culture. Essentially, Hoberman’s argument is that inordinate attention to and idolization of prominent black athletes such as Michael Jordan has focused attention away from other more realistic and important role models, and this, in turn has stunted intellectual, social and economic development in the black community.

“Notwithstanding Edwards and Hoberman’s observations on the inverse relationship between physical prowess and intellectual acumen, most studies assessing black-white differences in athletic performance have focused on physical and physiological parameters, and have typically found blacks to be more physically suited than whites for activities requiring speed and power.

“If interpreted on face value without critical analysis, it is easy to jump to the conclusion that such differences are innate and racially determined. As Edwards (1972) points out, this might lead some to conclude that blacks evolved differently than whites and remain at a more primitive evolutionary level because they are more closely associated with lower animals who are also known to possess greater speed and strength.

“On the other hand, it is only a short leap to believing that whites evolved to a higher intellectual level than blacks because they dominate virtually all other areas. Consequently, an explanation of black dominance in major sports which focuses predominately on physical differences between blacks and whites often results in reinforcing stereotypical ideas about black physical prowess rather than exploring the significance of motivation, intellect, discipline and hard work in accounting for athletic success. [Chapter 3, Louis Smith]

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RACISM AND SPORTS: A GLOBAL VIEW

“The 1968 Olympics black power salute, when Tommie Smith and John Carlos held their fists high in protest, is an iconic image that marked a defining, and polarizing, moment in sports on a global stage. Harry Edwards, one of the organizers of the salute, and a sociologist at the University of California, Berkeley, comes to Duke this month for an Oct. 28-30 conference to discuss race and other issues surrounding professional sports.”

“New York Times sports columnist William Rhoden, the author of Forty Million Dollar Slaves, and a mix of other journalists, academics and current coaches and athletes will also participate in the “Race, Sport and Power” conference, addressing recruitment, economics and other issues related to how players become professional athletes.”

“The panelists will discuss the economics of sport, social inequality, how football players are recruited in Africa and the exploitative practices around the role of Africa as a supplier of players,” says Laurent Dubois, a Duke romance studies and history professor who helped organize the event.”

“There is a common theme of race and racism woven through professional sports at the international level,” says Dubois, who cites Europe’s practice of luring African and South American players with big salaries as one example of sports reflecting larger patterns of global inequality.”

“Dubois is teaching “World Cup and World Politics” this semester and has organized a series of films about the politics surrounding the soccer industry (see “The Soccer Project” (see embedded video) also visit soccerpolitics.com). He says these discussions are important in light of the long-standing struggle that led to the announcement that the World Cup will be held in Africa for the first time next year.
Conference co-organizer William “Sandy” Darity, an economics and public policy professor at the Sanford School of Public Policy, says the topic of race and sports is rich with questions related to race, athleticism and stereotypes.”

“The underlying belief is that there may be some kind of genetic and racial edge that black athletes may have. People believe blacks can jump higher because of basketball,” says Darity, who notes that such assumptions can come into question in the face of facts such as the “racial mix of high jumpers and pole vaulters.”

“Another controversial issue on the agenda is the use of performance-enhancing drugs in both amateur and professional sports. A Friday morning panel will explore the topic of “doping” with experts Doriane Coleman of Duke Law School, a former elite runner, and John Hoberman of the University of Texas, Austin, author of Testosterone Dreams.”

“I’m sure everyone has ideas, but I’m not sure everyone has integrated those ideas. I hope people will engage the panelists and feel comfortable asking uncomfortable questions,” Darity says.

“He suggests attendees come with open minds and a willingness to weigh the evidence about the relationship between race and sports across a range of disciplines.”

“We are making the connection between research in the arts and humanities and in athletics,” Dubois says, noting that the fields of sociology, anthropology, political science, economics and history will all be represented at the conference.”

“I want to give people a sense of the research that has been done and for them to come away thinking about the situation in the U.S. in a slightly different way. Sport is not just a form of leisure and recreation; it is a major social force.”

[Racism and Sports: A Global View, Conference addresses race and other issues surrounding professional sports, This Month at Duke, 2011 Office of News & Communications, 615 Chapel, Drive, Box 90563, Durham, NC 27708-0563, September 29, 2009, Camille Jackson]

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White Men Can’t Jump’, Review for the Sociology of Sport, Study Abstract

This study examined the ways young people negotiate, take up and/or resist dominant discourses of race, athleticism and sport in school physical education contexts in the southeastern United States. The participants in this performance ethnography study were 28 high school students and one physical education teacher/coach. Data from multiple sources were collected, including field notes, and formal and informal interviews with each participant. The results of this study show that white boys complied with the notion of blacks’ `natural’ physical superiority, and black boys occupied an ambiguous position within dominant discourses of race and natural athleticism; while girls, in general, rejected racialized discourses of the body, instead adopting a liberal humanistic position. Considering these findings, we advocate for sport educators’ and physical education teachers’ adoption of critical media pedagogy to promote a democratic consciousness among young people in sport and physical education settings. [White Men Can’t Jump’; Race, Gender and Natural Athleticism International Review for the Sociology of Sport December 2008 vol. 43 no. 4 347-364 Laura Azzarito Loughborough University, UK, Louis Harrison Jr., University of Texas at Austin, USA,]
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GENDER DISCRIMINATION

“When Congress passed Title IX in 1972, it marked a watershed moment for American education. The law demanded equality in a number of areas besides athletics, including access to higher education, the teaching of math and science and standardized testing.

“The legislation, renamed the Patsy T. Mink Equal Opportunity in Education Act in 2002, in honor of its principal author, Rep. Patsy Mink, D-Hawaii, is best known for its impact on athletics — and the controversy it has sparked over whether the law has worked to even the playing field for women and girls in sports.

“The view of Title IX isn’t uniformly positive, though. “It was passed in 1972 and it’s now 2011,” says Grant, the former University of Iowa women’s athletic director. “That’s a long, long time to have waited for equal opportunity. I never dreamed in 1972 that I would be talking with you in 2011 and still talking about the need to achieve equal opportunity.” She adds, “We’ve been successful — to a degree.”

“The number of females taking part in high-school and college sports is higher than ever. Nearly 3.2 million girls participated in high-school sports in 2009-10, compared with only 295,000 in 1972, according to the National Federation of State High School Associations (NFHS). At the college level, growth has been similarly strong. Just 16,000 women took part in college sports in 1967, but some 180,000 are involved today. Athletic scholarships for female athletes were unheard of prior to Title IX; today they are commonplace. [Footnote 13]

“Experts say the growth in women’s sports moved in tandem with other social forces, including the rise of the women’s rights movement, changes in corporate marketing strategies and civil-rights legislation.

“There is no way to know the percentage of change caused solely by Title IX. Society had to mature a bit in the 1950s before it became ready to see discrimination against women as something that needed a remedy,” says Brooklyn College’s Carpenter, who adds that cultural norms, business forces and legislation “typically move together.”

“But Title IX’s proponents vehemently dispute claims that schools’ efforts to comply with the law have led to a reduction in the number of male athletes. “That is flat out not true,” says Nancy Hogshead-Makar, senior director of advocacy at the Women’s Sports Foundation, which advocates for gender equality in sports. “Both the NCAA and the National Federation of State High School Associations cite record highs for both men and women,” says Hogshead-Makar, also a law professor at Florida Coastal School of Law in Jacksonville. [Footnote 16]

“But Hogshead-Makar thinks such comparisons miss the point. “Sports is the only part of our society that is sex segregated,” she says. “So in the math department, the administrators make entrance gender-blind. But in a sports program you can’t do that — you have to create out of whole cloth another sports department. That’s why there’s a lot of misunderstanding around Title IX. People don’t have any other frame of reference to think about a sex-segregated part of education.”
[Has Title IX created equity for women in sports, CA Researcher Blog]

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RACIAL HARASSEMENT AND DISCRIMINATION FROM GHETTO AFFECTED ATHLETES WITH THE GHETTO ATTITUDE AND PHENOMENON

ATHLETE HARASSMENT AND DISCRIMINATION can be caused, created, inflicted or allowed to be caused, created or inflicted by the Coach or a Teammate.
HARASSMENT TYPES:
1 Bullying
2 Psychological
3 Racial
4 Religious
5 Sexual
6 Stalking
7.Sociological

Let’s be clear. Most African American Athlete push back against Ghetto Affected Athletes and do not want to be included in their group. That is also true for all other genders, races, religions and ethnic backgrounds who have Ghetto Affected elements.

The Ghetto Attitude and Phenomenon affects all people with different genders, races, religions and ethnic backgrounds. The Athlete with the Ghetto Attitude and Phenomenon in Sports can make their Athlete target feel degraded due to Racial differences resulting from Racial Harassment and Discrimination from the Ghetto-Affected individual. Some have used the term, though improper, Reverse Racism, because Racism is Racism, no matter.

“Ghetto personalities exist primarily in the ghetto, however this attitude has been personified and glamorized in the media.” This attitude is not only uninformed, ill-mannered and rude, its pathologically aggressive and self-oppressive.

Aggression gives the individual with the ghetto mentality and personality a feeling of power and a kick-ass defiance. It is an approach they use toward nearly everyone. Some peers get sucked into that person’s attitude until they begin to realize the ghetto attitude isn’t all its cracked up to be.

Ghetto personalities exist in all socioeconomic areas, not just poor. Ghetto-attitude personalities can also be from upper socio-economic classes. However, this arrogance is perfected in poor neighborhoods. Ebonics is the jive language most use who are afflicted with this psychopathology.

Profanity is another characteristic verbal operando. Cursing, they believe, will elicit fear. Senseless Hoodlums believe when they walk around the hood everyone fears them. Most are jobless, ignorant and are stupefied by over rapping.

The ghetto-affected body language is reminiscent of the tough guy act. They delight in making a statement. Since they don’t understand and can’t process fundamental information, they opt for acting angry.

Oppression is a concept about which they have basic uncomplicated information. They recognize the basic definition. The ghetto-affected individual crafts self-oppressive feelings by creating a condition of rudeness and stupidity. As a result, peers and others are insulted by them and thus act oppressively back toward them. “Being stupid is its own reward.” [CoolNsmart.com]

The absurdity is that they are actually oppressing themselves more than others are oppressing them. [The Ghetto Phenomenon Blues Highway, Yahoo Contributor Network Jun 7, 2011 ]

Lowering academic admission standards for Athletes from marginalized populations has been approved by many Athletic Conferences, but should only coexist provided moral and behavior standards are not lowered simultaneously.

When you play ball with a tough guy, chip-on-the-shoulder, cheap-shot, bully attitude someone will appear show you how tough you really aren’t.

Moral, self-disciplined Student Athletes, given athletic scholarships and administrative support, can change the culture of teams that need changing.

There are SOCIAL RISKS THAT CAN NEGATIVELY AFFECT ATHLETES SAFETY, HEALTH AND WELFARE:
• Poor to No Education
• Human and Civil Rights Violations
• Safety and Protection Violations
• Lack Healthcare services
• Impaired Childhood Growth Development
• Stressful Environments
• No Employment
• Unemployment
• Poor Working Conditions
• Dismal Income Distribution
• No Food Security
• No Housing Security
• Strife
• Socioeconomic Relations
1. Social Exclusion
2. Social Safety Nets against Lost Job, Misfortune
3. Marginalized populations
Minorities
Immigrants
Disabled Athletes

THE “GHETTO ATTITUDE” “GHETTO PHENOMENON” “THE HOOD” is characterized:
• Extreme Defensiveness
• Chip on the Shoulder
• Discontent
• Aggressiveness
• Hate
• Violence
• Harassment
• Foul Language
• Foul songs
• Inferiority Complex
• Persecution
• Jealous
• Envy
• Uncivilized
• Intolerant
• Bad Habits
• Alcohol Abuse
• Drug Abuse
• Poor Study Habits
• Lack of Self-Discipline
• Fear of Teammates
o Disrespect
o Insults
o Belittlement
o Contempt
o Disregard

Benjamin Hochman of the Denver Post writes that Kenneth Faried, the former Morehead star and newest Denver Nugget could “change the way you look at society.”

Hochman writes about Faried’s Muslim background and how he was brought up by his mother.

An excerpt:
Faried is fascinating. He plays basketball the way he lives his life – unwavering, headstrong and proud. And he comes to town carrying an amazing life story in his gym bag.

“As far as him being strong as a person, he got that from me, his father and my wife,” said his mother, Waudda Faried, from back home in Newark, N.J. “He grew up in the ‘hood, but he’s not ‘hood.’ It was a totally different attitude. And I’m just proud of him. I’m so proud of him, I can’t express the words of how proud I am.”

Hochman also references Chris Jackson, the former LSU star and former Nugget who became a Muslim and then created a controversy by not standing for the national anthem. Faried has a chance to show Denver residents a different side of the religion, Hochman writes. [Kenneth Faried creating a cultural buzz in Denver
Published July 4, 2011 NBA John Clay’s Sidelines, Kentucky Sports and Beyond]
Why any person, white, black, red, Hispanic, oriental, poor, wealthy, atheist, Protestant, Athlete and so forth would don the Ghetto Attitude is inconceivable, senseless and counterproductive.

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A fanatical minister, preaching Romans 1:32, recently condemned another group of human beings…. But rational people are not dumb enough to fall for this preacher’s literal, out of context interpretation of our Holy Bible, because rational people are intelligent enough to read St. Paul and Romans chapters entirely and continue on to Romans 2:1, which reveals that those, who judge and condemn are as guilty of unrighteous sinning as any other sinner…..Come on preacher, understand and preach the Bible’s message, love and tolerance.