MOST RAPE VICTIMS DON’T APPEAR INJURED…BUT RAPE IS A MEDICAL EMERGENCY… AND SEXUAL ASSAULT…EVEN ON CAMPUS AND BY FOOTBALL PLAYERS

“A Baylor University graduate who says she was raped by football players in 2013 sued the university Friday. Her lawsuit includes an allegation that 31 Baylor football players committed at least 52 acts of rape, including five gang rapes, between 2011 and 2014 — an estimate that far exceeds the number previously provided by school officials.

“Those figures could not be independently verified Friday, and Baylor officials declined to comment on their accuracy.

“The woman, identified in the suit by the pseudonym Elizabeth Doe, reports being gang raped by then-Baylor football players Tre’Von Armstead and Shamycheal Chatman after a party on April 18, 2013.

“Those football players were previously named as suspects in a sexual assault police report related to that date but were not charged. They could not be immediately reached for comment Friday.

“The woman, a 2014 graduate of Baylor, is now suing the university for Title IX violations and negligence.

“The lawsuit describes a culture of sexual violence under former Baylor football coach Art Briles in which the school implemented a “show ’em a good time” policy that “used sex to sell” the football program to recruits. That included escorting underage recruits to strip clubs and arranging women to have sex with prospective players, the suit alleges.

“Former assistant coach Kendal Briles — the son of the head coach — once told a Dallas-area student athlete, “Do you like white women? Because we have a lot of them at Baylor and they love football players,” according to the suit.

“An “It’s On Us” campaign sign was placed across Martin Residence Hall on the Baylor University campus in Waco on May 3, 2016.
(Jae S. Lee/Staff Photographer)

“Investigation by lawyers identified at least 52 “acts of rape,” including five gang rapes, by 31 football players in a four-year period. At least two of the gang rapes were committed by 10 or more players at one time, the suit states.

“This contrasts with figures Baylor officials have provided based on an investigation by Pennsylvania-based law firm Pepper Hamilton, which looked into how Baylor handled sexual assault on campus. Regents told The Wall Street Journal in October that they were aware of 17 women who reported sexual or domestic assaults involving 19 players, including four alleged gang rapes, since 2011. [New Baylor Lawsuit, Sarah Mervash, 1/27/2017 Dallas News]

_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________

The college and university Title IX Coordinator has an important responsibility, but the job should not be as inclusive as advertised on campus. A campus bulletin says, “The coordinator disseminates educational materials, web site information that inform campus students about their rights under Title IX, grievance procedures and coordinates investigations and dispositions of rape and sexual assault cases.”

“The Title IX Coordinator receives and processes inquiries from students, faculty, staff, administrators and third parties concerning harassing behavior or other discrimination in violation of Title IX.”

Everyone, including the Title IX Coordinator, should refer rape and sexual assaults to a medical doctor 1st, who is equipped to perform rape examinations, for examination and treatment, rather than refer the victims to any other resource or coordinate an internal campus investigation 1st. What follows are the reasons legislative authorities should correct the civil rights injustices of rape and sexual assault victims on campus, by athletes and every other offender.

Internal investigations on campus, with no outside assistance, appears for many colleges and universities a departure from traditional law enforcement and a ‘soft’ will to enforce legitimate law, when assaults are sequestered from outside interference. 4. 5. There is no such experience as a ‘wee bit of sexual assault’ or a ‘wee bit pregnant’. There is nothing ‘soft’ about the horrific victim’s experience and perpetrator’s punishment.

One coordinator stated. “the simple fact is that what we in higher education don’t know about Title IX compliance vastly outstrips what we do know. Guidance from the U.S. Department of Education’s Office of Civil Rights does not prepare anyone for the moment of taking the helm.” 6.

It appears that the U.S. Department of Education’s Office of Civil Rights does not instruct Title IX Coordinators that they should recommend Doctor examination 1st to rape victims. The error is an obvious omission of rape and sexual assault authority. [Guide to Critical Thinking Terms and Concepts]

An authority is person with much knowledge and expertise in a field and hence reliable. The diagnosis and treatment of rape rests with the ultimate authority, the Doctor, who commands reason and evidence. “(Medical) Experts have the backing of reason and evidence and rightfully gain authority.” Title IX Coordinators are not medical authorities with knowledge attained through research certainty and medical education.

Sexual assault can be instantaneously fatal. In a more common scenario, “rape and other sexual assault can also result in physical trauma, tissue damage and infection, but most people will not suffer visible physical injury.” 1.

Naturally, death and brutal visible victim injuries will incite immediate, angry responses. It might be, since victims don’t appear to be visibly injured, rigorous investigations and severe punishments might seem to be too punitive. Let’s be clear violent sexual assaults, are violent crimes.

Explain and blame, not victim health and well-being, become the immediate focus following rape and sexual assault. “Since the central issue in many cases of rape or other sexual assault is whether or not both parties consented to the sexual activity or whether or not both parties had the capacity to do so, physical force resulting in visible physical injury is not always seen.”

“This stereotype can be equally damaging because people who have experienced sexual assault, but have no physical trauma may be less inclined to report to the authorities and to seek health care.” 2. This second scenario manifesting ‘no visible physical injury’ is potentially a fatal trap characterized with immediate ‘catch-and-release’ accompanied potentially deadly ‘unwanted catches’.

“While penetrative rape generally does not involve the use of a condom, in some cases a condom is used. This significantly reduces the likelihood of pregnancy and disease transmission, both to the victim and to the rapist. Rationales for condom use include: avoiding contracting infections or diseases (particularly HIV), especially in cases of rape of sex workers or in gang rape (to avoid contracting infections or diseases from fellow rapists); eliminating evidence, making prosecution more difficult (and giving a sense of invulnerability); giving the appearance of consent (in cases of acquaintance rape); and thrill from planning and the use of the condom as an added prop. Concern for the victim is generally not considered a factor.” 3.

“Victims of rape often experience multiple hardships in the aftermath of their attack. Not only can they sustain serious physical injuries during an assault, but many also experience emotional trauma. Some may lose a job or home, or will need to relocate due to safety concerns. Each case is different, but there are many common issues experienced by rape victims, especially when it comes to medical problems.”

“It’s estimated that 19-22 % of rape victims experience genital injuries. Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are contracted by 40 % of rape victims, while 1 to 5 % become pregnant by their offender.” 7.

“Payment for the examination under VAWA: Under the Violence Against Women Act (VAWA) a state, territory, or the District of Columbia is entitled to funds under the STOP Violence Against Women Formula Grant Program only if it, or another governmental entity, incurs the full out-of-pocket cost of medical forensic exams for victims of sexual assault. “Full out-of-pocket costs” means any expense that may be charged to a victim in connection with the exam for the purpose of gathering evidence of a sexual assault. In addition, under the Violence Against Women Act of 2005, states may not require victims to participate in the criminal justice system or cooperate with law enforcement in order to receive a forensic medical exam 8. (See pp. 61-62)

Rape and sexual assault victims are legally entitled to a screening exam and a transfer to another emergency department if the facility is not equipped to handle rape emergencies. Facilities have to comply, if they are “licensed hospitals with emergency departments” but do not if they are only “licensed free-standing emergency medical care facilities.”

“Health care facilities have an obligation to provide services to sexual assault patients.” 8.

1. [Heterogeneity of Existing Research Relating to Sexual Violence, Sexual Assault and Rape Precludes Meta-analysis of Injury Datam Kennedy, K. M. (2013). Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine. 20 (5): 447–459]
2. [The Relationship of Victim Injury to the Progression of Sexual Crimes through the Criminal Justice System, Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine, Kennedy, K. M. (2012). 19(6): 309–311]
3. [Rapists and Condoms; Is Use a Cavalier Act or a Way to Avoid Disease and Arrest? Wolff, Craig, August 22, 1994, New York Times]
4. [The Pros and Cons of Being a Title IX Coordinator, Career Tools | by Marta Segal Block, April 8, 2015, HigherEd.Jobs]
5. [USC Campus Rape Lawsuit: This Title IX Official’s Vulgar Response Is Unbelievable,Male student was essentially found guilty of rape because he submitted his text messages in the wrong order, by Robby Soave Aug. 2, 2016, reason.com]
6. [Compliance Crusader, the challenges of dealing with sexual assault and discrimination on campus as a Title IX coordinator. by Peter Lake, August 11, 2016]
7. [Medical Treatment For Rape Victims: Who is Responsible? By Valeriya Metlam, Feb 4, 2015. Law Street8.
8. [A National Protocol for Sexual Assault Medical Forensic Examinations Adults/Adolescents, Second Edition U.S. Department of Justice, Office on Violence Against Women, April 2013, NCJ 228119]

Sports and college campuses are NOT sheltered from the law. Every person is covered by the umbrella of the Rule of Law, during every microsecond and in every location in the United States. Sports venues and universities are not excluded.

Condeleezza Rice, “No Sport is a Kingdom unto its own” “No one and no sport are above the Law.” 36.

When this reporter heard on ESPN ‘Outside The Line’ Nov. 2, 2016, that some of the Baylor witnesses had asked about immunity granted by the University’s Title IX Coordinator, I was astounded. How could the coordinator offer immunity? Since when did Baylor University administrators and the Title IX Coordinator become part of the criminal justice system? “In the U.S. witness immunity from prosecution occurs when a prosecutor grants immunity to a witness in exchange for testimony or production of other evidence.” [text of US Code Title 18 Chapter 601 Immunity For Witnesses]

Baylor University, other universities, administrations, athletic departments, conferences, associations, and coaches are happy to continue preventing outside interference by legitimate criminal justice systems, while self-preserving and protecting campuses’ reputations with quasi ‘prosecutors’ in over-extension and contradistinction to the Title IV Coordinator’s primary important job, coordinating information.

The Baylor University website described the university’s policy to comply with Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972.

“Reporting Title IX Brochure”: In an isolated line by itself, the brochure states, “In an emergency Call 9-1-1 or the Baylor University Police Department at 254-710-2222.” The brochure insinuates this is for emergencies in general and does not specify or include sexual assault. Sexual assault is not spelled out as part of the 9-1-1 procedure. All college students don’t realize that sexual assault is an emergency.

Rape should be described for what it is. Rape is sexual assault, a violent crime. Rape and sexual assaulted victims on campus should be taken immediately to the emergency department and/or referred to a Doctor, equipped to perform rape examinations, not first to a coordinator. Then the Doctor should report it outside the university system to the county attorney, who then can notify the Title IX Coordinator, after the proper medical emergency procedure is initiated and in progress.

The Baylor Title IX Brochure Page 1 – http://www.baylor.edu/titleIX/index.php?id=868077 and Page 2 – http://www.baylor.edu/titleIX/index.php?id=870110 are very misleading and play right into the arbitrary, capricious system of prejudice and injustice established by the win-at-all-costs, sport community.

“Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 (20 U.S.C. § 1681 et seq.) requires schools that receive federal financial assistance to take necessary steps to prevent sexual assault on their campuses and to respond promptly and effectively when an assault is reported.”

The Baylor Title IX Brochure states, “Students reporters and third party reporters ‘On line’ and ‘Anonymously’ are instructed that “the report will need to be assigned to the Title IX Coordinator to review.” That’s fine as long as the victim’s condition has already been evaluated and treated by a physician.

Some believe that campus police are trained and have similar authority as local police. They are trained, but they are not exactly like local police. They are employed by the college and report to the college administration and sometimes have different objectives. Some rape victims have questioned campus police potentially improper actions after crimes were committed.

“Increased push-back indicates that there is a distinction to be drawn between public state actors (police) and private campus actors (police) and the availability of remedies resulting from their actions.”

“Under 42 U.S.C. § 1983, individuals may sue those who violate their constitutional rights while acting under ‘color of state law’. Courts have not been consistent in determining whether private university police forces act under ‘color of state law’.”

“Private universities often maintain police forces that are given extensive police powers by state statutes but are controlled by private entities (an oxymoron). Some courts have looked directly to the state statutes that delegate police power, but others have maintained a more fact-specific inquiry. The state enabling statutes themselves vary in their terms, but not their effects, and are thus partially responsible for this inconsistency.” [Under School Colors: Private University Police as State Actors Under 2015 § 1983 by Leigh J. Jahnig, Northwestern Education, Vol. 110, No. 1 249]

‘BAYLOR UNIVERSITY BOARD OF REGENTS contracted the independent Pepper Investigation who pronounced their FINDINGS OF FACT. There were 3 startling ‘Regents Findings’ quotes:
1. “Baylor failed to take appropriate action to respond to reports of sexual assault and dating violence reportedly committed by football players.”
2. “Baylor failed to take action in response to a report of dating violence.”
3. “Athletics and football personnel affirmatively chose not to report sexual violence and dating violence to an appropriate administrator outside of athletics.” [BAYLOR UNIVERSITY BOARD OF REGENTS FINDINGS OF FACT, The Pepper Hamilton LLP (Pepper)]

Nothing will ever be the same for Baylor after the Pepper Hamilton report. The news coming from the independent investigation into how the school handles sexual assault allegations started with swift leadership changes in the football program and university front office.

Five months later some of those same issues highlighted by the report are back in the spotlight thanks to the resignation of the school’s first Title IX coordinator, Patty Crawford.

Crawford’s resignation was made official nearly in the dark of night — at 11:54 p.m. CT to be exact. As the Title IX coordinator for Baylor, she was responsible for helping implement the recommendations from the Pepper Hamilton report that were accepted as mandate. While some public comments after her arrival in Nov. 2014 suggested progress in Waco, she now says that increased reporting of sexual assault was something the university did not want, alleging that senior leadership is more interested in protecting “the brand” than the students. [Baylor announced Patty Crawford’s resignation in the dark of night by Chip Patterson Oct 05, 2016 CBS]

“Two women who reported being gang raped by multiple football players in 2012 reached a financial settlement on Tuesday with Baylor University, and details of the alleged sexual assaults hadn’t previously been reported in the media.

Baylor officials have said previously that 17 women had reported 19 sexual or physical assaults involving football players since 2011, including four gang rapes. According to university officials, the alleged incidents that led to Tuesday’s settlement were included in the four gang rapes.

“The terms of the settlement with the university were undisclosed and the women never filed a lawsuit. No details about the nature of the assaults, the players involved or the women who reported the rapes were released.

“One of the two women also reported being physically assaulted by a football player in 2013.

“In a joint statement issued by the women’s attorneys and the university, Baylor interim president David E. Garland confirmed that the football players implicated in these reported sexual assaults and the athletic department personnel identified as having received the report of physical assault in 2013 are no longer a part of the university.” [Women who reported gang rape by Baylor football players reach settlement with school by Paula Lavigne and Mark Schlabach, ESPN 11/22/2016]

“The Indiana Supreme Court ruled that the University of Notre Dame doesn’t have to give its crime reports to ESPN Wednesday. The unanimous ruling ends a lawsuit filed by ESPN in January 2015 that argued the university had an obligation to release crime reports about student athletes under an open records law.

“An appeals court had sided with ESPN in March, arguing that the open records law applied to the school because it’s campus police department has legal authority from the state and has jurisdiction outside of the university’s campus, reports ABC News.

“But the Supreme Court justices decided the open records law didn’t apply, because Notre Dame University isn’t part of the government.” Its as simple as that.

“A grant of arrest powers enabling university campus police departments to keep order on their private campuses does not transform those officers or the trustees who oversee them into public officials and employees,” Justice Mark Massa wrote in his decision. [By CS Staff, Campus Safety, November 17, 2016] They are not part of the government.

1. All citizens and visitors anywhere and at all time in the U.S., including all athletes, serve the U.S. Rule of Law.
2. The U.S. Rule of Law is always superior to athletic association rules. [The Law Rules, Rule of Law Project,Virginia Bar Association, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DEFB8WBIw5A]
3. All school amateur athletes from primary school through college and all non-school amateur athletes, in order to participate, must obey the rules of athletic associations during participations and must obey the rules when on school campuses and in athletic parks.
4. College Campus administrations and their police enforce campus rules that impact all students on campus including athletes.
5. NCAA, school and non-school athletic associations enforce rules on how college, primary and secondary school and non-school athletic games are played.
• Groups 3., 4. and 5. are private businesses, designated by superiors to enforce rules that affect athletes and campuses.
• and submit budgets, conduct business and report to their superiors.
• and have rules, regulations and by-laws which are not and should not be assumed to have been delegated by government or emergency medical services.
• and become potentially problematic when they over-step their bounds and become imaginary parts of the criminal justice system and emergency medical services, particularly when their aim is to intentionally interfere with outside legitimate police, government and emergency medical services.
• Proper emergency medical services, forensic medicine and justice are not served and every party to rape and sexual assault crimes are negatively impacted, when legitimate police reactions and investigations, government and emergency medical services are obstructed.

Conversely, campus police officers are very necessary and have been praised, when they have performed immediate heroic actions while on campus duty. Campus police are armed, licensed for weapon carry and trained shooters.

The Ohio State University Police confirmed Officer Alan Horujko shot and killed the terror suspect, Abdul Razak Ali Artan, Monday morning, 28 Nov 2016, after Artan ran down student pedestrians and then slashed and stabbed them with a knife. Surely, no court in the U.S. would question officer Horujko’s actions, or any other armed citizen under those circumstances. Artan had been influenced by ISIS and radicalized. Officer Horujko is truley a hero and deserves high praise. Responses to deadly murderous and terrorist attacks are emergency circumstances, requiring specific training. Likewise, rape and sexual assault are emergency circumstances and require medical evaluation and treatment 1st followed by proper investigations.

Knowledgeable advocates are correct. In this age of electronic communication it is astonishing that most advocates and educators are not broadcasting and making ‘crystal clear’ public procedures for all rape and sexual assault victims.

This reporter is advocating the proper procedure, which is for sexual assault and rape victims to seek medical help 1st and not proceed otherwise, no matter the ancillary group, such as, university boards, presidents and athletic directors and athletic associations and their personnel, who instruct otherwise. Doctors should be consulted 1st and foremost.

Rape and sexual assault victims are injured, whether they know it or not. An injury might be invisible and unrecognizable by the victim or others and only discernible by doctor examination.

Every victim in the right place, wrong place or by bad choice, stabbed with a knife, shot by a gun or raped by an assailant have commonalities. They have been injured. The victims’ bodies have been violated and penetrated. Victims cannot care for themselves or represent themselves correctly. Each and every victim should seek treatment or be referred for treatment by a Doctor, equipped to perform rape examinations, for their immediate injuries and/or delayed injuries and/or disease. Rape and sexual assault are medical emergencies and should be treated properly. Step 1 following rape is DOCTOR EXAMINATION.

In addition to medical knowledge, Doctors have holistic medical training, communication skills, major components of health care, and occupy a unique position of respect and power and can offer victim-patient reassurance and support. Good Doctor-student-patient relationships can reinforce student-patients’ confidence, motivation, and positive view of their health status and health outcomes.

Colleges and universities’ publish their Title IX Coordinator job qualifications and job description. None found when researched, described prosecutor, judge, jury and the practice of medicine as qualifications.

Doctor Examination and treatment of victims 1st, protects the Title IX Coordinator, innocent coaches, administrators, athletes and others associated with the college. Doctor 1st, facilitates the Title IX Coordinators ability to do the job hired to do, not the job of Doctor and law enforcement, as often misconstrued.

Indirectly, the Title IX Coordinator, when third in command following the Doctor and County Attorney, will be reassured that the student-patient is in good ethical, caring, Doctor hands, 1st, and will be satisfied that the coordinators job will be facilitated by the Doctor and County Attorney, when it is time for the coordinator to step-in and perform their duties, having been relieved of inappropriate, falsely assigned, by whomever, duties, obligations and expectations.

The Title IX Coordinator should be relieved to know that they do not have to be the Doctor, prosecutor, judge and jury and function as the rape and sexual assault coordinator, otherwise. Inappropriate duties assigned to the coordinator, must be terribly troubling and disconcerting when crimes have been committed.

Doctor examination is the only way to examine for offender DNA, sexually transmitted diseases and trauma, not only to the genitals, but other traumatized anatomy. We doctors have treated fulminate antibiotic-resistant gonorrhea and know how dangerous it can be. The bacteria and other disease causing agents can be injected into the vagina instantaneously with penetration. Patient and accused offender interviews require professional expertise.

For greater rape and sexual assault prevention, public health control, victim medical care and litigation, the U.S. Department of Education’s Office of Civil Rights, advocates, educators, associations, groups, legislators and every person in every agency should acknowledge, publicize and advertise that rape and sexual assault are medical emergencies 1st and should be managed accordingly with no delay. Everyone who knows better, should do better or, if not, trained better.

Doctor examination and treatment are the 1st rape and sexual assault management procedures and should be advertised as a medical emergencies, everywhere, including title IX and university educational brochures, policies and procedures.

Specifically, public policy must be established and rape victims must be educated to consult Doctors for examination 1st and be treated for the immediate injuries and and, subsequently, treated for complications of the injuries, that might include sexually transmitted diseases, PTSD and other psychological disorders. Doctors have an established rape victim protocol, rape kits and rape training. Campus Title IX Coordinators do not have the same qualifications.

Just like knife stabbings and gun wounds, rape has ICD-10 diagnostic and procedure codes, because they are 1st and foremost medical injuries:
Adult rape
confirmed T74.21
suspected T76.21
Child
confirmed T74.22
suspected T76.22

HIPAA Privacy Rule establishes that patient privacy and confidentiality must be complied by Doctors. Doctors are mandated rape reporters

This is an additional problematic layer: ‘Currently, the judicial system favors the presumption of the defendant’s (offender) innocence, presupposing that the victim has falsely accused her attacker. 3. “Therefore, the victim must not only overcome his or her fears of facing the attacker in court, the victim must also deal with the underlying presumption in society that the sexual assault was consensual.” [The Existing Confidentiality Privileges as Applied to Rape Victims, 5 J.L. & Health 101 (1990-1991)]

The only way justice can prevail is with evidence, facts and application of the law of the case. Consensual sexual contact is normal, but “rape, sexual assault, is a sexual act in which a person is coerced or physically forced to engage against their will, or a non-consensual sexual touching of a person.” Sexual assault is a form of sexual violence and is a medical emergency. Doctor examination will secure the facts and evidence of the rape case, that will be accounted during testimony at trial by the doctor, an expert witness.

“Victims of rape receive financial assistance from a variety of sources including federal, state, and local funds. In addition, victims’ insurance policies, if they have one, can cover some of the expenses. The federal government acknowledged in its latest revision of VAWA that victims should never pay for their forensic examination, as it’s a part of the evidence-collection process. At the same time, it’s not clear about the order of payment for the ‘collateral costs’ such as HIV, STI, and pregnancy testing as well as the treatment of physical injuries.”

“Health care facilities have an obligation to provide services to sexual assault patients.”[A National Protocol for Sexual Assault Medical Forensic Examinations Adults/Adolescents, Second Edition U.S. Department of Justice, Office on Violence Against Women, April 2013, NCJ 228119]

“Violence Against Women Act, was first passed by the federal government in 1994. It’s a comprehensive law aimed at protecting women who were victims of violence, including rape. Among other things, VAWA mandates that rape victims cannot be forced to pay for their own rape examination or for services of protective order.” [Medical Treatment For Rape Victims: Who is Responsible? By Valeriya Metla, Feb 4, 2015.Law Street]

“HARRISBURG, Pa. — Federal officials looking into how Penn State handled child sexual-abuse complaints against former assistant football coach Jerry Sandusky hit the university with a record $2.4 million fine Thursday, saying it violated campus crime reporting requirements, failed to warn people about potential threats and fostered a belief among athletes that rules didn’t apply to them.

“The fine was the result of a five-year investigation begun as Sandusky’s 2011 arrest raised questions about what administrators had known about him.
A report by federal officials said Penn State officials disclosed in June that 45 people have claimed they were Sandusky’s victims. His 2012 conviction and decades-long prison sentence stem from allegations involving 10 boys.

“Penn State has been hit with a record $2.4 million fine for how it handled complaints about former assistant football coach Jerry Sandusky. Patrick Smith/Getty Images

“The U.S. Department of Education concluded Penn State largely ignored many of its duties under the 1990 Clery Act, which promotes transparency about campus safety. When we determine that an institution is not upholding this obligation, then there must be consequences,” department Undersecretary Ted Mitchell said.
[Penn State fined record $2.4M for handling of Jerry Sandusky case ESPN, Associated Press, Nov 3, 2016]

The Jeanne Clery Disclosure of Campus Security Policy and Campus Crime Statistics Act or Clery Act, signed in 1990, is a federal statute codified at 20 U.S.C. § 1092(f), with implementing regulations in the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations at 34 C.F.R. 668.46.

The Clery Act requires all colleges and universities that participate in federal financial aid programs to keep and disclose statistics and information about crime on and near their respective campuses. Compliance is monitored by the United States Department of Education, which can impose civil penalties, up to $35,000 per violation, against institutions for each infraction and can suspend institutions from participating in federal student financial aid programs.
[“After Their Daughter Is Murdered at College, Her Grieving Parents Mount a Crusade for Campus Safety”. Gross, Ken (1990-02-19), People.com]
[“Final Changes to Clery Act”. Inside Higher Ed. New, Jake (October 20, 2014)]

“Most elite colleges and universities describe their admissions policies as ‘holistic’, suggesting that they look at the totality of an applicant – grades, test scores, essays, recommendations, activities and so forth.” 1.

Athletes ‘numbers’ alone should not determine their college/university admission. Those ‘numbers’, a 2.3 GPA or better, beginning in 2016, and outstanding high school statistics and athletic ability, currently are the only written policy requirements for admission for most D-1 colleges. 2.

Athletes should be evaluated not only for their ‘numbers’, but, also, their soft skills, similar to the general student populations’ requirements across the U.S.

If college athletes are expected to assimilate into the campus community and socialize with other properly evaluated students, they should have similar honesty, character, dignity, and leadership, collaboration, communication, problem solving and management skills, just a few examples, and then alcohol abuse, prescription drug overuse, illicit and performance enhancing drug use, gang rape and dating violence might not be such tragic problems among college athletes. 4.

Nothing is perfect, but “If we are looking in the wrong place, we won’t be able to find the right answer.“ 5.

1. [How They Really Get In By Scott Jaschik, Inside Higher Ed, April 9, 2012]
2. [Extracurricular Materials, University of Wisconsin-Madison]
3. [Athnet Sports Recruiting]
4. [Colleges Admission Boards Want Students with Character: Five Valuable Soft Skills Preferred by College Admission Boards, Nathaniel Haynesworth, Managing Director & Co-Founder, Esoteric Academic Solutions (EAS) Jun 28, 2014]
5. [Understanding how nerve cells in the brain produce energy required to function, Maiken Nedergaard, M.D., D.M.Sc., co-director of the University of Rochester Center for Translational Neuromedicine, April 25, 2015]

Potential college scholarship athletes’ soft skills should be evaluated by an independent college board outside the athletic department and soft skill evaluations should be included in the acceptance consideration of an athletic scholarship candidate. A college scholarship is a reward for jobs and life well done.

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