SEXUAL MISCONDUCT TESTOSTERONE, DOPAMINE AND THE LAW

Men and women have seduced and coerced their way to power, fame, fortune and pleasure since the beginning of time. Power (Dominance), vulnerability and sex are always in the equation. Historically, women have seduced vulnerable powerful men, powerful men have seduced and coerced vulnerable women and mostly powerful men have seduced and coerced vulnerable societies.

The reversible ‘casting couch’, who is casting whom and for what reason,  is symbolic of a ‘psychological condition’ as old as Eve and the snake in the garden, the ‘original sin’, the expulsion of Hagar, Jezebel, Nile River episodes, Egypt, the Pyramids, Rome and English Throne, to name a few. [Top 10 Most Powerful Women in History Mr. Smarty Pants, Oct. 2, 2008, Listverse]  [ Women Who Changed the History of Ancient Egypt, by Mahmoud, Jul 10, 2016m, Osiris Tours]

This reporter, during medical school psychiatry training was taught “Sigmond Freud’s complex, controversial, psychosexual development theory. The phallic stage (approximately between the ages of 3.5 and 6) is the1st period of development in which the libidinal focus is primarily on the genital area. Prior to this stage, the libido (broadly defined by Freud as the primary motivating energy force within the mind) focuses on other physiological areas.

“In Freud’s oral stage, in the first 12 to 18 months of life, libidinal needs concentrate on the desire to eat, sleep, suck and bite.

“The theory suggests that the penis becomes the organ of principal interest to both sexes in the phallic stage. This becomes the catalyst for a series of pivotal events in psychosexual development. These events, known as the Oedipus complex for boys, and the Electra complex for girls, result in significantly different outcomes for each gender because of differences in anatomy.” Feminists argue Freud’s theories.  [Sigmund Freud, New Introductory Lectures on Psychoanalysis]   [Jane Gallup, Feminism and Psychoanalysis (1982)]

The penis, phallus, fertility, military strength and physical prowess (dominance) are symbols of man-power. “Throughout history there have been many men who have managed to wield great power over the human race. Their actions have influenced societies, whether negatively or positively. Each man-type has changed the history of mankind and the world in one form or another.”

“They have been great rulers, have conquered the world, some have changed their countries or the world. They have been great visionaries who have brought about military, cultural or spiritual change and their teachings and philosophies are followed even today. [10 Most Powerful Men In History, Admin February 26, 2014 Incredulist]  [Machismo. The Merriam-Webster’s Concise Encyclopedia. 2017]

Unfortunately and dichotomously, “history reveals that people in power, primarily men, see women as objects of pleasure and subject them to harassment, but every man who has ever walked on earth has come from the womb of a woman.” [Men in Power, a quick word! If harassing women is symbol of your manhood, SHAME on you. by Infinite Thoughts, Oct 26, 2017]

The concept  of motherhood is the state of being a mother, deserving the respect of all humans. Men should remember from whence they derived and honor all women, who are potentially sisters, wives and mothers.

Motherhood includes one or more of the following extremely important functions. providing ovum for fertilization, birthing, breast feeding, nuturing, protectiing, rearing their child(ren), or some combination thereof. Mothering is the most important responsibility on earth. [Definition of Mother, Oxford Dictionaries. Oxford University Press]

Men should do unto all women respectfully and honorably, as they would have other men do unto their sisters and mothers. Gracious women deserve respect and honor, while strong, aggressive men seek and retain riches. Proverbs 11:16.

‘Motivated forgetting’ and behaviing as one pleases, is a theorized psychological behavior in which people may forget unwanted learning and memories, either consciously or unconsciously and forget to respect and honor women and motherhood. [1]

Forgetting with an underlying purpose is a defence mechanism, since these are unconscious or conscious coping techniques, used to reduce anxiety arising from unacceptable or potentially harmful impulses. Thus it can be defence mechanism in some ways.[2]   [1.Weiner, B. (1968). “Motivated forgetting and the study of repression”. Journal of Personality. 36 (2): 213–234]  [2. Schacter, Daniel L. (2011). Psychology Second Edition. 41 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10010: Worth Publishers. pp. 482–483]

Psychological needs and wants are weaknesses on the one hand, when the Psyche triggers the Mind’s Dopaminergic Network with an internal lacivious impulse and stimulates the neurobiological production of feel-good Dopamine, pleasures and strength, on the other hand. Activation of lacivious vocal and contact impulses must be consciously suppressed.

“According to Freud our mind is made up of 3 levels i.e. the preconscious level, the conscious level and the unconscious level.

The psychological Id is buried in the unconscious mind. It seeks neurobiological pleasure from what we do. “The Id is the great reservoir of libido” and acts according to the ‘pleasure principle’, the psychic force that motivates the tendency to seek immediate gratification of any impulse.  [Schacter, Daniel (2009). Psychology Second Edition. United States of America: Worth Publishers. p. 481]

Most of what we do is controlled by the Id, because most of what we humans do is to fulfill our psychological desires, needs, and wants for neurobiological pleasure. Humans get neurobiological pleasure when a psychological need or want is fulfilled. [Sigmund Freud’s Theory of Dreaming (1900) GCSC Psychology]

Although it is known that serum testosterone (T) concentrations are related to libido, the strength of that relationship in community-dwelling men has not yet been determined.

The objective of Travison et al research was to assess the strength and significance of the association between aging men’s self-reports of libido and serum T concentrations

Travison et al found Libido and T concentrations are strongly related at the population level. [The Relationship between Libido and Testosterone Levels in Aging Men by Thomas G. Travison, John E. Morley, Andre B. Araujo, Amy B. O’Donnell, John B. McKinlay;, The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, Volume 91, Issue 7, 1 July 2006, Pages 2509–2513,

“Irwin Goldstein, MD, the editor-in-chief of The Journal of Sexual Medicine stated that “Many, many men about 1 / 5 have low sex drive.

“Low libido or a drop in sex drive is a common symptom of low testosterone. T  is essential to a satisfactory sex life. T not only influences good erectile function, but it also plays a role in desire.

Testosterone is a necessary precursor to the production and release of certain neurotransmitters, or “brain chemicals,” that are closely related to sexual arousal and sexual desire. [Low Testosterone Levels’ Effect on Sex Drive,June 15, 2017Author Dr. Richard Gaines, Health Gains]

“It is because of the suppression of these “feel good” chemicals, that men with low-T often feel moody or depressed. That is the same reason why men with low testosterone may also lose interest in sex.

“Testosterone also helps to keep men on an even keel by keeping your other hormones in balance. Once testosterone levels drop, the intricate balance and interactions of other critical hormones related to sexual desire get thrown off. This

“Power, an Extrinsic Reward, and a Neuropsychological Pleasure, is continually changing because it also depends on needs and wants. This situation is a permanent arrangement for males and females. Males have a psychological drive and need triggered by neurochemical testosterone levels, their libido, to have sex and, consequently, sometimes, they initiate fertilization and reproduction of another human.

“Research found that in violent men, testosterone levels were significantly correlated with hostility. Most violent men were diagnosed with Antisocial Personality Disorder (ASP) [DSM-III-R; 301.70], and the unweighted ASP symptom count also correlated significantly with testosterone levels in these subjects.

“We suggest that individuals whose life histories involve numerous antisocial behaviors tend to have high testosterone levels even when interpersonal violence is excluded. This, however, does not eliminate the possibility that males who are characterized by high hostility may also have elevated testosterone levels.

“Violent predisposition and antisocial conduct beginning in early adolescence predict adult aggressive behaviors.which are augmented by power-related alcohol expectancies and alcohol abuse.  Aggr. Behav. 25:113–123, 1999. © 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [Testosterone, aggressiveness, and antisocial personality by Anu S. Aromäki, Ralf E. Lindman, C.J. Peter Eriksson, J. Aggressive Behavior, Volume 25, Issue 2 Pages 113–123: 12 February 1999]

“Though females also have testosterone, the amounts they have are comparatively minimal. Therefore, they don’t have the desperate kind of desire and need to have sex like males have.

Every male was first dependent on the nurturing and security within their mother’s womb. Females have more testosterone-less control and are more sexually attractive than males. Consequently, females have the upper hand and can maneuver the male from a psyche of sensible strength, not impulsive desires.

TESTOSTERONE

Power, as described above, is translated to Dominance in most of the scientific literature. See dominance below.

“Testosterone is necessary for normal sperm development. It regulates acute HPA (Hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis) response under dominance challenge, enhances muscle growth.

“Testosterone blood concentrations, during circadian rhythm, peaks early each day, regardless of sexual activity.

“The plasma levels of testosterone significantly increase after masturbation in men.[Fox CA, Ismail AA, Love DN, Kirkham KE, Loraine JA (Jan 1972). “Studies on the relationship between plasma testosterone levels and human sexual activity”. The Journal of Endocrinology. 52 (1): 51–58]  [Purvis K, Landgren BM, Cekan Z, Diczfalusy E (Sep 1976). “Endocrine effects of masturbation in men”. The Journal of Endocrinology. 70 (3): 439–44]

“Higher levels of testosterone are associated with periods of sexual activity. Testosterone also increased in heterosexual men after having had a brief conversation with a woman. The increase in testosterone levels was associated with the degree that the women thought the men were trying to impress them.

“Men who watch a sexually explicit movie have an average increase of 35% in testosterone, peaking at 60–90 minutes after the end of the film, but no increase is seen in men who watch sexually neutral films. Men who watch sexually explicit films also report increased motivation, competitiveness, and decreased exhaustion. A link has also been found between relaxation following sexual arousal and testosterone levels.

“Men’s levels of testosterone, a hormone known to affect men’s mating behavior, changes depending on whether they are exposed to an ovulating or non-ovulating woman’s body odour. Men who are exposed to scents of ovulating women maintained a stable testosterone level that was higher than the testosterone level of men exposed to non-ovulation cues.

“Testosterone levels and sexual arousal in men are heavily aware of hormone cycles in females. This may be linked to the ovulatory shift hypothesis, where males are adapted to respond to the ovulation cycles of females by sensing when they are most fertile and whereby females look for preferred male mates when they are the most fertile; both actions may be driven by hormones.

“Men with lower thresholds for sexual arousal have a greater likelihood to attend to sexual information and that testosterone may work by enhancing their attention to the relevant stimuli. [Roney JR, Mahler SV, Maestripieri D (2003). “Behavioral and hormonal responses of men to brief interactions with women”. Evolution and Human Behavior. 24 (6): 365–75]  [Pirke KM, Kockott G, Dittmar F (Nov 1974). “Psychosexual stimulation and plasma testosterone in man”. Archives of Sexual Behavior. 3 (6): 577–84]  [Hellhammer DH, Hubert W, Schürmeyer T (1985). “Changes in saliva testosterone after psychological stimulation in men”. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 10 (1): 77–81]  [Rowland DL, Heiman JR, Gladue BA, Hatch JP, Doering CH, Weiler SJ (1987). “Endocrine, psychological and genital response to sexual arousal in men”. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 12 (2): 149–58]  [Miller SL, Maner JK (Feb 2010). “Scent of a woman: men’s testosterone responses to olfactory ovulation cues”. Psychological Science. 21 (2): 276–83]   [Gangestead SW, Thornhill R, Garver-Apgar CE (2005). “Adaptations to Ovulation: Implications for Sexual and Social Behavior”. Current Directions in Psychological Science. 14 (6): 312–16’]  [Alexander GM, Sherwin BB (Sep 1991). “The association between testosterone, sexual arousal, and selective attention for erotic stimuli in men”. Hormones and Behavior. 25 (3): 367–81]

“Men who produce more testosterone are more likely to engage in extramarital sex. Testosterone levels do not rely on physical presence of a partner for men engaging in relationships (same-city vs. long-distance), men have similar testosterone levels across the board.

“Research studies have shown more general aggressive, competitive behavior and feelings with increased testosterone.

“Investigations found direct correlation between high testosterone levels and dominance.

Testosterone and other androgens have evolved to ‘masculinize a brain’ in order to be competitive even to the point of risking harm to the person and others. By doing so, individuals with ‘masculinized brains’ as a result of pre-natal and adult life testosterone and androgens enhance their resource acquiring abilities in order to survive, attract and copulate with mates as much as possible.

“The ‘masculinization of the brain” is not just mediated by testosterone levels at the adult stage, but also testosterone exposure in the womb as a fetus. Higher pre-natal testosterone indicated by a low digit ratio as well as adult testosterone levels increased risk aggression among male players in a soccer game.

“Studies have also found higher pre-natal testosterone or lower digit ratio to be correlated with higher aggression in males.

“Testosterone produces aggression by activating subcortical areas in the brain, which may also be inhibited or suppressed by social norms or familial situations while still manifesting in diverse intensities and ways through thoughts, anger, verbal aggression, competition, dominance and to physical violence.

“Testosterone mediates attraction to cruel and violent cues in men by promoting extended viewing of violent stimuli. Testosterone specific structural brain characteristic can predict aggressive behaviour in individuals.

[Marazziti D, Canale D (Aug 2004). “Hormonal changes when falling in love”. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 29 (7): 931–36]

[van Anders SM, Watson NV (Jul 2006). “Relationship status and testosterone in North American heterosexual and non-heterosexual men and women: cross-sectional and longitudinal data”. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 31 (6): 715–23]

[Mazur A, Michalek J (1998). “Marriage, Divorce, and Male Testosterone”. Social Forces. 77 (1): 315–30[  [Gray PB, Chapman JF, Burnham TC, McIntyre MH, Lipson SF, Ellison PT (Jun 2004). “Human male pair bonding and testosterone”. Human Nature. 15 (2): 119–31]

[Berg SJ, Wynne-Edwards KE (Jun 2001). “Changes in testosterone, cortisol, and estradiol levels in men becoming fathers”. Mayo Clinic Proceedings. 76 (6): 582–92]

[Apicella CL, Dreber A, Campbell B, Gray PB, Hoffman M, Little AC (November 2008). “Testosterone and financial risk preferences”. Evolution and Human Behavior. 29 (6): 384–90]

[Wright J, Ellis L, Beaver K (2009). Handbook of crime correlates. San Diego: Academic Press. pp. 208–10]

[Finkelstein JW, Susman EJ, Chinchilli VM, Kunselman SJ, D’Arcangelo MR, Schwab J, Demers LM, Liben LS, Lookingbill G, Kulin HE (1997). “Estrogen or testosterone increases self-reported aggressive behaviors in hypogonadal adolescents”. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. 82 (8): 2433–38]

[ von der PB, Sarkola T, Seppa K, Eriksson CJ (Sep 2002). “Testosterone, 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone and cortisol in men with and without alcohol-related aggression”. Journal of Studies on Alcohol. 63 (5): 518–26]

[Ellis L, Hoskin AW (2015). “The evolutionary neuroandrogenic theory of criminal behavior expanded”. Aggression and Violent Behavior. 24: 61–74]

[Butovskaya M, Burkova V, Karelin D, Fink B (2015-10-01). “Digit ratio (2D:4D), aggression, and dominance in the Hadza and the Datoga of Tanzania”. American Journal of Human Biology. 27 (5): 620–27]

[Carré JM, Olmstead NA (Feb 2015). “Social neuroendocrinology of human aggression: examining the role of competition-induced testosterone dynamics” (PDF). Neuroscience. 286: 171–86]

[Batrinos ML (2012-01-01). “Testosterone and aggressive behavior in man”. International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism. 10 (3): 563–68]  [Soma KK, Scotti MA, Newman AE, Charlier TD, Demas GE (Oct 2008). “Novel mechanisms for neuroendocrine regulation of aggression”. Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology. 29 (4): 476–89]

DOPAMINE

“Dopamine is a neurotransmitter released by the brain that plays a number of roles in humans and other animals. Some of its notable functions are in:

·        Movement

·        Memory

·        pleasurable reward

·        behavior and cognition

·        attention

·        inhibition of prolactin production

·        sleep

·        mood

·        learning

“Dopamine is produced in the dopaminergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) of the midbrain, the substantia nigra pars compacta, and the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus.

“A part of the brain called the basal ganglia regulates movement. Basal ganglia in turn depend on a certain amount of Dopamine to function at peak efficiency. The action of Dopamine occurs via Dopamine receptors, D1-5 and regulates human movements.

“Dopamine reduces the influence of the indirect pathway (inhibition), and increases the actions of the direct pathway within the basal ganglia. When there is a deficiency in Dopamine in the brain, movements may become delayed and uncoordinated. On the flip side, if there is an excess of Dopamine, the brain causes the body to make unnecessary movements, such as repetitive tics.

“Dopamine is the chemical that mediates pleasure in the brain. It is released during pleasurable situations and stimulates one to seek out and repeat the pleasurable activity or occupation. This means food, sex, and several drugs that are abused, which are also stimulants of Dopamine release in the brain, particularly in areas such as the nucleus accumbens and prefrontal cortex.

“Cocaine and amphetamines inhibit the re-uptake of Dopamine. Cocaine is a Dopamine transporter blocker that competitively inhibits Dopamine uptake to increase the presence of Dopamine.

Amphetamine increases the concentration of Dopamine in the synaptic gap, but by a different mechanism. Amphetamines are similar in structure to Dopamine, and so can enter the presynaptic neuron via its Dopamine transporters. By entering, amphetamines force Dopamine molecules out of their storage vesicles.

“By increasing presence of Dopamine both these lead to increased pleasurable feelings and addiction.

“Levels of Dopamine in the brain, especially the prefrontal cortex, help in improved working memory. However, this is a delicate balance and as levels increase or decrease to abnormal levels, memory suffers.

“Dopamine helps with human focus and attention. Vision helps a Dopamine response in the brain and this in turn helps one to focus and direct their attention. Dopamine may be responsible for determining what stays in the short term memory based on an imagined response to certain information. Reduced Dopamine concentrations in the prefrontal cortex are thought to contribute to attention deficit disorder.

“Dopamine in the frontal lobes of the brain controls the flow of information from other areas of the brain. Disorders of Dopamine in this region lead to decline in neurocognitive functions, especially memory, attention, and problem-solving.

Receptors are depots that receive and attach chemicals that activate or inhibit a neuron cell. D1 receptors and D4 receptors are responsible for the cognitive-enhancing effects of Dopamine. Some of the antipsychotic medications used in conditions like schizophrenia act as Dopamine antagonists. Older, so-called “typical” antipsychotics most commonly act on D2 receptors, while the atypical drugs also act on D1, D3 and D4 receptors.

“Dopamine is the main neuroendocrine inhibitor of the secretion of prolactin from the anterior pituitary gland. Dopamine produced by neurons in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus is released in the hypothalamo-hypophysial blood vessels of the median eminence, which supply the pituitary gland. This acts on the lactotrope cells that produce prolactin. These cells can produce prolactin in absence of Dopamine.

“Dopamine is occasionally called a prolactin-inhibiting factor (PIF), prolactin-inhibiting hormone (PIH), or prolactostatin.

Low D2 receptor-binding is found in people with social anxiety or social phobia. Some features of negative schizophrenia, social withdrawal, apathy, anhedonia (inability to feel pleasure) are thought to be related to a low Dopaminergic state in certain areas of the brain.

“On the other hand, those with bipolar disorder in manic states become hyper-social, as well as hypersexual. This is credited to an increase in Dopamine. Mania can be reduced by Dopamine-blocking anti-psychotics.

“Abnormally high Dopaminergic transmission has been linked to psychosis and schizophrenia. Both the typical and the atypical antipsychotics work largely by inhibiting Dopamine at the receptor level.

“Dopamine plays a role in pain processing in multiple levels of the central nervous system. This includes the spinal cord, periaqueductal gray (PAG), thalamus, basal ganglia, insular cortex, and cingulate cortex. Low levels of Dopamine are associated with painful symptoms that frequently occur in Parkinson’s disease.

“Dopamine is one of the neurotransmitters implicated in the control of nausea and vomiting via interactions in the chemoreceptor trigger zone. Metoclopramide is a D2-receptor antagonist and prevents nausea and vomiting.

Sources:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17600522

www.cellbio.duke.edu/…/MissaleDARrev.pdf

http://psych.colorado.edu/~oreilly/papers/frankoreilly06.pdf

tauruspet.med.yale.edu/…/GJ-Wang-Lancet-2001-obesity.pdf

dionysus.psych.wisc.edu/…/BerridgeK2007a.pdf

www.uni-ulm.de/…/nrn_may2008_research_highlight.pdf

http://128.196.98.170/pubs/Dopamine-HBTNN2e-preprint.pdf

[Dopamine Functions, By Dr Ananya Mandal, MD, June 22, 2015, Medical News AZoNetwork]

[EUTOPIA, WHISTLE WHILE YOU WORK by Micheal B. Minix, Sr., M.D., July 1, 2015]

Due to this power, self-confidence and presumed superiority, which females often assert over males, females can manifest aggressive behavior in controlled situations.

Because females occasionally are aware of their secondary pleasure, power over men, they frequently take advantage of the circumstances, without men, while puffing-up their machismo, realizing they are passionately surrendering. [Women are more powerful than men, StudyMode] [16 Scandalous Women in History Who Seduced Their Way to Power by Setareh Janda]

“The history of rampant sexual misconduct in Hollywood has been well documented. Women, who have had self-described ‘casting couch’ experiences, have described those incidents as vile and terrifying.

“Yet, there lingers in our culture the persistent belief that what’s really occurring is a reward trade-off, quid pro quo. The swap is the Primary Intrinsic Reward, the male’s sexual pleasure principle, in exchange for the Extrinsic Reward of the female’s important Hollywood role, fame, fortune and power”, which is less important for survival of the human species. Therefore, the  equation is not teleologically balanced.

A Primary Intrinsic Reward is more fundamental to the meaning and purpose of life than the Extrinsic Reward. Homo sapien-sapiens, human beings’ species, cannot survive without sexual intercourse. A lack of Hollywood roles, fame, fortune and power would not threaten our species.

The human reward system is a group of neural networks in the brain which are activated according to incentive and reward importance  i.e., motivation, ‘wanting’, desire, craving for a reward.

“Associative learning (primarily positive reinforcement and classical conditioning),

and positive emotions, particularly ones which involve pleasure as a core component (e.g., joy, euphoria and ecstasy). 1. 6.

“Reward is the attractive and motivational property of a stimulus that induces appetitive behavior aka approach behavior and consumption behavior.

“Any stimulus, object, event, activity, or situation that has the potential to make us approach and consume it is by definition a reward.”

In operant conditioning, rewarding stimuli function as positive reinforcers however, the converse statement also holds true: positive reinforcers are rewarding.

“Primary rewards are a class of rewarding stimuli which facilitate the survival of one’s self and offspring, and include homeostatic (e.g., palatable food) and reproductive (e.g., sexual contact and parental investment) rewards. 1.  7.

“Intrinsic rewards are unconditioned rewards that are attractive and motivate behavior because they are inherently pleasurable.

“Extrinsic rewards (e.g., money) are conditioned rewards that are attractive and motivate behavior, but are not inherently pleasurable.

“Extrinsic rewards derive their motivational value as a result of a learned association (i.e., conditioning) with intrinsic rewards.

Extrinsic rewards may also elicit pleasure (e.g., from winning a lot of money in a lottery) after being classically conditioned with intrinsic rewards.

“Survival for most animal species depends upon maximizing contact with beneficial stimuli and minimizing contact with harmful stimuli. Humans are the only thinking species of the animal kingdom.

“Reward cognition serves to increase the likelihood of survival and reproduction by causing associative learning, eliciting approach and consumption behavior, and triggering positive emotions. 1.

“Thus, reward is a mechanism that evolved to help increase the adaptive fitness of animals.8.

1.    Schultz W (2015). “Neuronal reward and decision signals: from theories to data”. Physiological Reviews. 95 (3): 853–951. doi:10.1152/physrev.00023.2014. PMC 4491543  . PMID 26109341.

2.    Malenka RC, Nestler EJ, Hyman SE (2009). “Chapter 15: Reinforcement and Addictive Disorders”. In Sydor A, Brown RY. Molecular Neuropharmacology: A Foundation for Clinical Neuroscience (2nd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill Medical. pp. 364–375. ISBN 9780071481274.

3.    Nestler EJ (December 2013). “Cellular basis of memory for addiction”. Dialogues Clin. Neurosci. 15 (4): 431–443. PMC 3898681  . PMID 24459410.

4.    “Glossary of Terms”. Mount Sinai School of Medicine. Department of Neuroscience. Retrieved 9 February 2015.

5.   Volkow ND, Koob GF, McLellan AT (January 2016). “Neurobiologic Advances from the Brain Disease Model of Addiction”. N. Engl. J. Med. 374 (4): 363–371. doi:10.1056/NEJMra1511480. PMID 26816013.

6.   Berridge KC, Kringelbach ML (May 2015). “Pleasure systems in the brain”. Neuron. 86 (3): 646–664. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2015.02.018. PMC 4425246  . PMID 25950633.

7.   “Dopamine Involved In Aggression”. Medical News Today. 15 January 2008. Retrieved 14 November 2010.

8.   Kolb B, Whishaw IQ (2001). An Introduction to Brain and Behavior (1st ed.). New York: Worth. pp. 438–441. ISBN 9780716751694.

“If anything, the equation seems biased in the favor of the aspiring actress, who lands the role, and develops her fame, fortune and power. Usually, the vulgar powerful man “has little to show for it.”

One tryst seems so little to have a red carpet rolled out before the rising star, a path to the A-list of movie stars, combined with riches, acclaim, and Oscars.

What’s it to her, one might ask? But as one ‘victim’ said to the ‘talent scout’, “Don’t ruin our friendship with romping for just five minutes.”

“What woman chasing a film career wouldn’t want to have sex with a powerful producer, and reap all the benefits of the romp?”

“This narrative conveniently assumes all young, beautiful women are also indiscriminate or, alternatively, ruthless and calculating, in their selection of sexual ‘partners’ (who is exploiting whom?); that the woman, for all her supposed naïveté, is more powerful than the man with whom she’s negotiating.”

“The ‘casting couch’, a term of the performing arts, in the past, turned something negative, coercive and non-consensual into an acceptable Hollywood ‘fling’. Previous Hollywood social and prforming arts norms are changing.

“The recent ‘MeToo’ campaign, was initiated by activist Tarana Burke over a decade ago but the campaign exploded last month after allegations against a sinester film producer, had such a widespread impact.  ‘MeToo’ shed light on violence against women and has contributed to shifting the focus away from shaming the victims, to shift the shame to where it belongs, on the perpetrators. [From Hollywood to the battlefield: Violence against women affects us all, 24 November 2017 by José Francisco Alvarado Cóbar, Emma Bjertén-Günther, Yeonju Jung and Dr Amiera Sawas, STOCKHOLM INTERNATIONAL PEACE RESEARCH INSTITUTE]

Fans do not generally suggest that women are raped before they get to be in the movies. Rather, reporters suggest, that women leverage sex for Hollywood roles and, in reality, the powerful person on the couch is the nubile, young actress with all her sexual charms, who actually gets to determine whether or not her career gets off the ground, or couch, not the older man.”

“It is the rare woman, or girl, who desires and wants to trade the full complement of sexual pleasure, with an elderly man for her professional success, but It is the exceedingly vulgar, unrefined man, who abuses women simply because he can” and it is the ‘sexual-act’ that is readily available. [The rumor is, she slept with him to get the part. The reality is uglier. Allegations lay bare the dark truth of the casting couch. By JESSICA M. GOLDSTEINOCT 10, 2017, T ThinkProgress]

Conversely, in an odd legislative decision, it was authorized that “sexual acts between lobbyists and a state official covered by North Carolina’s state ethics act do not constitute a ‘reportable expenditure’ or ‘things of value’ according to a ruling the N.C. State Ethics Commission, also strangely, published the Friday before Valentine’s Day.

“Consensual sexual relationships do not have monetary value and therefore are not reportable as gifts or ‘reportable expenditure made for lobbying,'” the opinion reads. “However, a lobbyist or lobbyist principal’s provision of paid prostitution services by a third party to a designated individual could constitute a gift or thing of value, albeit an illegal one, depending on the particular facts.”

“N.C. Lobbyists are required to report anything worth more than $10 per day that they give to a person covered by the state ethics act or a family member. [NC Ethics Commission: Sex acts don’t violate lobbyist gift ban By Mark Binker February 13, 2015 NCCapital]

Does Consensual Prostitution Exist?

“Whatever one may think of the exchange of the sexual-act, extracourse and intercourse, for money, consensual or not, it is a criminal act in all 50 states, except a few rural counties in Nevada, and illegally a crime for both the buyer and the seller.”

“Truly consensual prostitution can occur almost anywhere in the U.S., without any major impediment.  It is neither a legal nor a moral “right,” but if it remains out of general public view, there is little likelihood that anyone will interfere.” Implementation of justice is costly to both the government and officials.

“The main injustice is what happens to the thousands of mostly women and children, whose lives are destroyed by being deceived and coerced into sexual slavery.”

The resounding message from this circular discourse is that “far too many men see women as objects, as something that can be bought and sold.  A woman’s body is not the same as a glass of brandy, or an ice-cream after a good dinner.  Women and girls are human beings, and not for sale” and stupidly vulnerable to the repercussions, once ‘hard with no brains’.

“Prostitution and trafficking in women touch upon the issues of human rights, gender inequality, sex and racial discrimination, and economic depravation, as well as the rule of law, crime control, law enforcement and corruption.  Women are not for sale. We must stop the prostitution and trafficking of women and children.”  (Winberg, 2/24/2003, Washington D.C.)

References

Baldwin, M.  (1989)  Pornography and the Traffic in Women:  Amicus Brief, Yale Journal of Law and Feminism, 1, Fall.

Barry, K.   (1979)  Female Sexual Slavery.  NYU Press, New York.

Barry, K.  (1995)  The Prostitution of Sexuality.  NYU Press, New York.

Belton, R.  (1992)  Prostitution as traumatic reenactment.  8th Annual Meeting of International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies, Los Angeles, CA, October 22.

Boyer, D., Chapman, L., & Marshall, B.  (1993)  Survival Sex in King County:  Helping women out.  Report Submitted to King County Women’s Advisory Board, March 31, 1993, Northwest Resource Associates, Seattle.

Brannon, R.  (1991)  Torturing women as fine art:  Why some women & men are boycotting Knopf.   On The Issues, Fall, 18-21.

Chicago, J.  (1979).  The Dinner Party:  A Symbol of Our Heritage. Anchor/Doubleday, Garden City, New York.

Erbe, N.  (1984)  Prostitution: Victims of men’s exploitation and abuse.  Law and Inequality, 2, 609.

Farley, M.  (2007)  Prostitution & Trafficking in Nevada: Making the Connections.   San Francisco:  Prostitution Research and Education. ISBN 0615162053  (Available on Amazon.com)

Farley, M, et.al. (2003) Prostitution and trafficking in nine countries.  In Farley, M. (Ed.)   Prostitution, Trafficking, and Traumatic Stress.  The Haworth Press Inc.

Giobbe, E.  (1990) Confronting the Liberal Lies About Prostitution.  In Leidholt, D., & Raymond, J.  (Eds.),   The Sexual Liberals and the Attack on Feminism.  Pergamon, New York.

Gray, D.  (1973)  Turning-Out:  A Study of Teenage Prostitution.  Urban Life & Culture,   1, 401.

Hunter, S. K. (1994)  Prostitution is cruelty and abuse to women and children. Michigan Journal of Gender and Law, 1, 1-14.

James, J.  (1980).  Entrance into Juvenile Prostitution.  Final Report 48, National Institute of Mental Health.

James, J., & Meyerding, J.  (1977)  Early sexual experiences and prostitution. American Journal of Psychiatry, 134, 1382-1385.

Linz, D., & Malamuth, N.  (1993).  Pornography.   Sage Publications, Newbury Park, CA.

Monto, M.A.  (2004)  Female prostitution, Customers, and Violence.  Violence Against Women, 10 (2), 160-188.

Murphy, P.  (1993)  Making the connections:  Women, Work and Abuse.  Paul M.  Deutsche Press, Orlando, FL.

Ostshoorn, J. (Ed.)  (2004)  The Politics of Prostitution.   Cambridge University Press.

Papery, D, & Deisher, R.  (1983)  Maltreatment of adolescents.  Adolescence 18, 499-506.

Prus, R., & Irini, S.  (1980)  Hookers, Rounders, and Desk Clerks.  Gage Publishing, Toronto.

Rosen, R.  (1982).  The Lost Sisterhood.  Johns Hopkins Press, Baltimore.

Russell, D. E. H. (Ed.),  (1993)   Making Violence Sexy.   Open University Press, Buckingham, United Kingdom.

Silbert, M., & Pines, A.  (1981) Sexual child abuse as an antecedent to prostitution.  Child Abuse and Neglect  5 , 407-411.

Silbert, M., & Pines, A.  (1981)  Occupational Hazards of Street Prostitutes,” 8,  Criminal Justice and Behavior.

Silbert, M., & Pines, A.,  (1982) Entrance Into Prostitution. Youth and Society,13 (4), 471-500.

Silbert, M., & Pines, A.,  (1983)  Early sexual exploitation as an influence in prostitution.  Social Work,  28,  285-289.

Simons, R., & Whitbeck, L.  (1991)  Sexual abuse as a precursor to prostitution and victimization among adolescent and adult homeless women.  Journal of Family Issues  12 (3), 361-378.

Weisberg,  (1984)  Children of the Night:  The Adequacy of Statutory Treatment of Juvenile Prostitution, 12 American Journal of Criminal Law 1, 5-6.

Widom, C., & Kuhn, J.  (1996)  Childhood victimization and subsequent risk for… prostitution and teenage pregnancy.  American Journal of Public Health,   86(11), 1607-1612.

Winberg, Margareta, Deputy Prime Minister of Sweden.  Conference: Path-breaking Strategies in the Global Fight Against Sex Trafficking, Monday, February 24 , 2003, Hyatt Regency Hotel, Washington D.C., U

[Does Consensual Prostitution Exist? by Robert Brannon, PHD, Chair, NOMAS Task Group on Pornography and Prostitution, NOMAS, National Organization for Men Against Sexism, Should there be any legal (or any feminist – political) objection to a mutually consensual agreement, between two adults, to exchange money for sex?]

The term sexual assault usually refers to an attack on a person that is sexual in nature. The legal definition of this term actually differs, however, from state to state.

“In some states, sexual assault is synonymous with rape, forced sexual intercourse or sexual contact without consent, while other states have no crime known as sexual assault and instead define sexual conduct without consent as rape, criminal sexual penetration, criminal sexual contact and sexual battery.

“This criminal conduct usually is designated as sexual penetration or sodomy without consent.

“Most states criminalize sexual conduct that does not include penetration, oral sex or sodomy, but that is conduct that is sexual in nature and occurs without the other person’s consent. This conduct usually is referred to as sexual battery or criminal sexual contact.

“A common definition for sexual battery is touching of an intimate part of the body (clothed or unclothed, depending on the state) for the purpose of sexual arousal or pleasure, without the other person’s consent; or forcing another person to touch an intimate part of the offender’s body.

“In some states, sex with a minor is criminalized only if the offender is older than the victim by a certain number of years – more than three years, for instance. This allows for a fifteen year old to have sex with her eighteen year old boyfriend without the boyfriend’s actions being criminal. If a 21 year old had sex with a 15 year old in the same state, however, the sex would be criminal.

“Many states also criminalize sex between a person in authority i.e. teacher, police officer or prison guard and someone over whom that person has authority, a student, a person in police custody, or a prisoner in a correctional facility or jail. The rationale for criminalizing this conduct is that capacity to consent is diminished by the authority the teacher or other authority figure has over the student or other person.

Sexual assault laws regarding rape and criminal sexual penetration usually define this conduct as a felony with serious penalties.

The extent of the penalties for rape and criminal sexual penetration vary from state to state.

The extent of the penalties for criminal sexual contact and sexual battery that do not involve penetration usually are less serious crimes and the accused is charged with lighter penalties than rape or criminal sexual penetration.

But criminal sexual contact that results in personal injury or is committed with a deadly weapon or by more than one person normally is a felony.

Criminal sexual contact without a weapon that involves only force or coercion, however, can be a misdemeanor.

Every state in the U.S. has a sex offender registration and notification program. Sex offender registry statutes require that a person convicted of a sex offense register with the sex offender registry in whatever state he lives in. A sex offense requiring registration is any crime that includes sexual penetration or sexual contact as an element. [Sexual Assault, by Lauren Baldwin, Contributing Author, Nolo Network is one of the web’s largest libraries of consumer-friendly legal information]  [USLegal, Legal Definitions, Sexual Misconduct]

A Report of sexual misconduct is a report to legal authorities for a criminal investigation. It is not an indictment or a conviction by the victim. An investigation will be conducted by authorities if so determined necessary.

The reported victim shall receive justice and the potential offender shall be allowed the presumption of innocence until proven guilty or not guilty and receive the due process of law.

Conversely, a report to an attorney for monetary losses or injuries due to another person’s actions rather than legal authorities, is a call for civil investigation, which helps uncover and assemble the information needed for a civil trail, the opposite of a criminal trail, which involves private disputes between individuals or organizations in which a person or entity will bring forward complaints that another person or entity failed to uphold their legal duty.

Financial and other compensations are the legal right of anyone who has suffered monetary losses or injuries due to another person’s actions. [Bad News and Good Judgement by Jim Pumarlo]

“Within this political victim-blame climate, people’s journeys towards victimhood often start at home with abuse or abandonment. Those who were abused in their childhood internalize shame, guilt, and a low sense of self worth.

“They learn to associate love with abuse, intimacy with violation, and care with betrayal. They internalize the message that they are not worthy of love. In order either to make sense of their world or protect their ideal view of their parents, they believe their own badness caused the abuse and that they must deserve it.

“Victims of childhood abuse may become victimizers, victims, or both. The pain and rage from the abuse and betrayal may turn inward, or can be turned onto another person. With external support or internal resiliency they can become neither (See figure 1). When the rage turns inward, a person can become either self destructive (self mutilators, suicidal, and other self defeating behaviors) or destroyed by others (victim). For these people, destruction by self or others is the last means of maintaining a feeling of being potent.

“Children who were abused received repeated reinforcement in their childhood to act as a victim. Often it was the only way to get acknowledged by parental figures.

Identification and imitation of the parents’ roles of victim or victimizers may lead to corresponding behavior. If a boy identifies with an abusive father, we can expect him to attempt to repeat the abusive behavior. Similarly, a girl who observes her mother being abused is more likely to engage in such behavior herself (Gelles & Straus, 1988). It is not uncommon for a person to assume both roles and become an abuser as well as a victim.

Social legitimacy of violence and victimization in our culture goes far beyond the familial battlefields. Television programs, video games, movies, school playgrounds, neighborhoods, and national and international politics all legitimize the use of violence to resolve conflicts.

Whether it is Sunday morning cartoons, an interactive violent video game, or the armed invasion of a foreign land, a clear message is sent that it is acceptable to use force as a means to achieve a goal. When the culturally violent messages complement the familial ones, children may not have any other frame of reference, and are most likely to fall into the role of victims, victimizers, or both. [Rethinking ‘Don’t Blame the Victim’: The Psychology of Victimhood By Ofer Zur, Ph.D. Journal of Couple Therapy, 4 (3/4), 15-36. Copyright and permission to post by Haworth Press, Inc.]

References

Bateson, G. (1979). Mind in nature. New York: Dutton

Beasley, R & Stoltenberg, C.D. (1992). Personality characteristics of male spouse abusers. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 23(4), 310-317.

Brownmiller, S. (1975). Against our will: Men, women, and rape. New York: Simon & Schuster.

Caplan, L. P. & Hall-McCorquodale, I., (1985). Mother Blaming in major clinical journals. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 55 (3), 345-353.

Cook, D. & Frantz-Cook, A. (1984). A systematic treatment approach to wife battering. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 10, 83-93.

Etzioni, A. (1987). A responsive society. San Francisco: Jossey Bass Inc.

Gelles, R. J. & Straus, M.A. (1988). Intimate violence. New York: Simon & Schuster.

Herman, J. L. (1992). Trauma and recovery. New York: Basic Books

Hughes, R. (1993). Culture of complaint: The fraying of America. New York: Oxford University Press.

Jain, R. S. (1990). The victim-offender relationship family violence. In Viano, E. (Ed.), The victimology handbook, (pp. 107-111), New York: Garland Pub., Inc.

Kaminer, W. (1992). I’m dysfunctional, you’re dysfunctional. New York: Addison-Wesley Pub. Co.

Keen, S. (1991). Fire in the belly: On being a man. New York: Bantam books

Keen, S. (1986). Faces of the enemy. New York: Harper and Row.

Lantane, B. & Darley, J. M. (1970). The unresponsive bystander: Why doesn’t he help? Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall.

Laszlo, E. (1976). The system view of the world. New York: George Braziller.

Mendelson, B. (1974). The origin of the doctrine of victimology. In Drapkin, L. and Viano, E. (Eds.), Victimology. Lexington: Lexington Books.

Ochberg, F. M. & Willis, D. J. (Eds.) (1991). Psychotherapy with victims. Psychotherapy (special issue) 28(1).

Rotter, J. B. (1971, June). External and internal control. Psychology Today, pp 37-42, 58-59.

Russel, D. E. H. (1984). Sexual Exploitation: Rape, child sexual abuse, and workplace harassment. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.

Ryan, W. (1971). Blaming the victim. New York: Vintage Books.

Sundberg, S. L., Barbaree, H. E., & Marshall, (1991). Victim blame and the disinhibition of sexual arousal to rape vignettes. Violence and victims, 16, 103-120.

Seligman, M. E. P. (1975). Helplessness: On depression, development and death. San Francisco: W. H. Freeman.

Schaef, A. W. (1986). Co-dependancy: Misunderstood-mistreated. New York: Harper and Row.

Sykes, C. J. (1992). A nation of victims: The decay of the American character. New York: St. Martin’s press.

Tavris, C. (1993, January). Beware the incest survivor machine. New York Times, Book Review, pp. 1,16-18.

Viano, E. (Ed.). (1990). The victimology handbook. New York: Garland Pub. Inc.

Walker, E. (1979). The battered woman. New York: Harper & Row.

Wolfgang, M. E. and Ferracuti, F. (1967). The subculture of violence. New York: Barnes and Noble.

Worchel, S. (1984). The darker side of helping. In E. Staub et al. (Ed.). The development and maintenance of prosocial behavior. New York: Plenum.

Yollo, K. & Bogard, M. (Eds.). (1988). Feminist Perspectives in wife abuse. Beverly Hills, Ca: Sage Publications, Inc.

Zur, O. (1989). War myths. J. of Humanistic Psychology, 29, 297-327.

Zur, O. (1991). The love of hating: Exploring enmity. History of European Ideas, 13, 345-369.

Zur, O. & Glendinning, C. (1987). Men/women – War/peace: A systems approach. In Macy, M. (Ed.),

Solution for a troubled world, (pp. 107-121) Boulder, CO: Earthview Press, Inc. ,Find a Therapist

“Sexual abuse is any form of sexual violence, including rape, child molestation, incest and similar forms of non-consensual sexual contact. Most sexual abuse experts agree sexual abuse is never only about sex. Instead, it is often an attempt to gain power over victims.

Immediate crisis assistance after sexual assault can prove invaluable and even save lives, but therapy can also be helpful for those who experienced sexual abuse in the past. Some therapists specialize in addressing the trauma of sexual assault, and long-term assistance may be beneficial to some survivors of sexual abuse.

“Sexual abuse is common, particularly for women and girls: 90% of all rapes are committed against women, with 1 in 6 women experiencing rape1 in 5 girls and 1in 20 boys experience childhood sexual abuse.

Sexual abuse and sexual assault are umbrella terms used to refer to a number of sexual crimes. These crimes include:

· Rape: Forced sexual contact with someone who does not or cannot consent. Though a handful of states specifically define rape as forcible sexual intercourse, any form of forcible sexual contact can have long-lasting effects on the victim, and most states now recognize forced oral sex and similar forms of assault as rape.

· Child molestation: Child molestation is any sexual contact with a child. Many children who are molested are too young to know what is happening and may not fight back. Some abusers use the child’s cooperation in these cases as “evidence” that no one was harmed.

·  Incest: Incest describes sexual contact between family members who are too closely related to marry. While incestuous sexual activity may occur between consenting adults, this is not common.

·  Sexual assault: Non-consensual sexual contact with another person. Sexual assault includes behavior such as groping and any unwanted sexual touching. Attempted rape also falls into the category of sexual assault.

Childhood Sexual Abuse can take many forms and includes behaviors where there is no physical contact, such as exposure or voyeurism. Childhood sexual abuse is common: 44% of sexual assault victims are under the age of 18, and 1 in 10 children are abused before the age of 18.

Although the abuse of children may, in some cases, stem from a sexual attraction to children, a perpetrator may also abuse a child in order to gain power over the child. A perpetrator will often also threaten or manipulate the child to prevent him or her from disclosing the abuse.

Up to 93% of children who have been sexually abused know their attackers, and over a third of the abusers are family members; therefore, programs that teach children to be wary of strangers will not help prevent all types of abuse. Approximately 73% of child victims do not disclose the abuse for a year or more, and 45% do not disclose it until more than five years have passed. Many victims of childhood sexual abuse never tell anyone about the abuse.

Some behavioral signs of abuse include:

·  Depression

·  Anxiety

·  Anger

·  Self-harm

·  Unexplained fear of particular people or places

· Sexual acting out

· Nightmares

Those who experienced sexual abuse as children are more likely to be sexually abused again later in life, abuse drugs or alcohol, experience an eating disorder, and have difficulty enjoying or engaging in intimate contact as an adult.

Sexual abuse does not only leave psychological scars. It can also have long-lasting health consequences. A person who is assaulted may sustain bruises and cuts or more severe injuries such as knife wounds, sprained or broken bones, and torn or damaged genitals. Some victims develop sexually transmitted infections. Others may become pregnant as the result of an attack. Survivors may also experience health concerns such as chronic pain, sexual dysfunction, fertility problems, and decreased immunity, as well as other unexplained aches, pains, or illnesses.

References:

1. Child sexual abuse statistics. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.d2l.org/site/c.4dICIJOkGcISE/b.6143427/k.38C5/Child_Sexual_Abuse_Statistics.htm

2. Child sexual abuse statistics. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.victimsofcrime.org/media/reporting-on-child-sexual-abuse/child-sexual-abuse-statistics

3. Kime, P. (2014, December 5). Incidents of rape in military much higher than previously reported. Retrieved from http://www.militarytimes.com/story/military/pentagon/2014/12/04/pentagon-rand-sexual-assault-reports/19883155

4. Marital rape. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.rainn.org/public-policy/sexual-assault-issues/marital-rape

5. Paulk, L. (2014, April 30). Sexual Assault in the LGBT Community. Retrieved from http://www.nclrights.org/sexual-assault-in-the-lgbt-community

6. Penn, N. (n.d.). “Son, Men Don’t Get Raped” Retrieved from http://www.gq.com/long-form/male-military-rape.

7. Rape and sexual assault. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.bjs.gov/index.cfm?ty=tp&tid=317

8. Reporting rates. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://rainn.org/get-information/statistics/reporting-rates.

9. Sexual Assault & LGBT Survivors. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://sapac.umich.edu/article/58

10. Sexual Assault: The Numbers | Responding to Transgender Victims of Sexual Assault. (2014, June 1). Retrieved from http://www.ovc.gov/pubs/forge/sexual_numbers.html

11. Snyder, H. N. (2000, July). Sexual Assault of Young Children as Reported to Law Enforcement: Victim, Incident, and Offender Characteristics. Retrieved from http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/saycrle.pdf

12.  Van der Kolk, B. (2014). The body keeps the score: Brain, mind, and body in the healing of trauma (1st ed.). New York, NY: Viking.

13. Who are the victims? (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.rainn.org/get-information/statistics/sexual-assault-victims [GoodTherapy.org Helping people find therapists. Advocating for ethical therapy.]

“Starting in October 2017, stories of sexual misconduct across the federal and state levels of American government emerged following the firing of film producer Weinstein over allegations of sexual harassment. Several legislators were accused and several retired from office. Their names are not important.

Reporting sexual misconduct in Congress is now an astonishing topic.

In 1995, Congress passed the Congressional Accountability Act, which applied certain labor laws to Congressional offices and created a process for reporting and resolving claims of sexual misconduct and other forms of inappropriate workplace behavior. The law was passed following the resignation of a Senator, who was accused of sexual harassment by multiple women at the U.S. Capitol.[73]

The National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL) issued a survey in October 2016, asking human resources departments in state legislatures about their policies regarding sexual harassment. NCSL received responses from 49 offices in 44 states. Of the 49 offices that replied, 37 reported having formal policies on sexual harassment. For example, a California law requires that state employees in supervisory roles undergo two hours of training on sexual harassment policies every two years.[74]

For reporting sexual harassment, some state legislatures, such as New York’s, refer all sexual harassment complaints to outside law firms for investigation. However, according to the NCSL in 2017, it is common for states to require the outside reports to go through committees controlled by legislative leaders.[75]   [Sexual misconduct in American politics (2017), Ballotpedia Last updated December 15, 2017, includes 74 references]

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