SEXUAL MISCONDUCT OFFENDER AND RAPIST ETIOLOGY

“Any program where adults supervise children represents an obvious opportunity for sexual predators, and youth sports programs are known targets for perpetrators of these crimes.

“According to Department of Justice statistics, a child in America is sexually assaulted every 2 minutes. Unfortunately the majority of incidents are not reported because children are afraid to tell anyone what has happened, and the legal procedure for validating an episode is difficult.

“Experts tell us that perpetrators of child abuse are almost always known to the victim and commonly hold positions of trust and confidence in the community. There are currently more than 400,000 known sexual offenders identified on state sex offender registries. These are just the ones we know about.

“Although the number of athletes who are abused or exploited by coaches has never been quantified, the research on sexual abuse in general is massive and sobering. Many experts believe that sexual abuse in sport, like sexual abuse in society, goes well beyond isolated incidents. Keith Lanning, an FBI supervisory agent, who has written extensively about child molesters, says that the average “seducer” molester, the kind most common in youth sports, victimizes approximately 120 children before he is caught. Despite today’s charged atmosphere, in which it may seem that allegations are easily made, estimates are that for every serious incident reported, 10 go unreported.

“Unfortunately, sports and other youth activities present an ideal opportunity for abusers. Experts say sexual predators typically seek the trust of both the parents and the child before beginning the abuse, so the child will be afraid to complain. This is compounded by the fact that an emotional bond is often created between the youth and the adult. [Who’s Protecting Our Children – National council of Youth Sports (NCYS) Child Safety Initiative]

In every U.S. community, from the poorest to the most elite gated and guarded communities, sexual predators lurk and creep around. And even if sexual predators had characteristics in common, theirs is a psychological disease that research shows has no cure.

“According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, an estimated 1 in 4 (25%) girls and 1 in 6 (17%) boys are sexually abused before their 18th birthday. That’s potentially 5 girls on every 20-member soccer squad, 2 boys on every 12-player basketball team.” [Wayne Drehs, ESPN, Dec 16, 2011]

The most recent study of teacher-student sexual abuse commissioned by the U.S. Department of Education found that up to 7% of all middle and high school students were the targets of physical sexual abuse by teachers, coaches and other adults working in the school system. Those statistics put the number of young teens sexually abused by teachers and other school adults in the millions. [48 Hours, CBS, June 20, 2015]

What about the numbers of children sexually abused by non-school coaches and other supervisory groups?

Improved ICD-10 diagnostic codes, effective Oct 1, 2015, improved mandated doctor, athletic trainer and health care personnel reporting, electronic medical records and improved data mining should enhance Child and Youth Athlete Sexual Abuse and molestation statistical availability.

“There really isn’t a typical sex offender.” Sex offenders are a diverse group of individuals who may in fact be more similar to us than they are different from us except for their victimization of children.

“Given the known heterogeneity of sex offenders, do sex offenders share any common characteristics that can be helpful for understanding their behaviors?

“For decades, researchers have found that some sex offenders have interests in, or are aroused to, things that are considered to be outside the realm of healthy or appropriate sexual interests or behavior, including, but not limited to, the following:6
• Engaging in sexual contact with young children or adolescents;
• Having sexual contact with others against their will or without their consent;
• Inflicting pain or humiliation on others;
• Participating in or watching acts of physical aggression or violence;
• Exposing oneself in a public setting; and/or
• Secretly watching others who are undressing, unclothed, or engaging in sexual activities.

“Some sex offenders may even prefer one or more of these types of behaviors over healthy, consenting sexual relationships with age appropriate partners; therefore, the term deviant sexual preferences.

Because these types of interests, urges, arousal, or even preferences can be so strong, it is believed that they are a significant driving force behind the initial onset of sexually abusive behaviors for some sex offenders.

“Not all sex offenders actually have evidence of these deviant interests, arousal patterns, or preferences.

“Sex offenders are aware that acts such as rape and child molestation are not only illegal but also harmful to others. Yet they engage in this behavior anyway. This is likely the result of cognitive distortions, or pro–offending attitudes.

“Some believe that women deserve to be treated in these ways.

“When used in a sexual context, groping is touching or fondling another person in an unwelcome sexual way using the hands. The term generally has a negative connotation in many societies, and may be considered sexual assault, and terms such as frotteurism (or toucherism) may describe the practice of a person rubbing up against another person, typically using their sexual parts.

“Touching a consenting person’s body during sexual activity, massage, or medical examination is not usually considered groping, though the term is sometimes used to include clumsy, selfish, or inappropriate sexual touching. Areas of the body most frequently groped include the buttocks, breasts, vulva and thighs on a woman, and the penis, testicles and buttocks on a man. Gropers might use their hands, but pressing any part of their body against another person can be considered groping.”

“Groping is considered illegal when there is no consent. The legal charge can vary from state to state but generally is considered to be sexual battery, sexual groping, or ‘unlawful touching’. In some jurisdictions, groping is considered “Criminal Sexual Conduct”, in the second to fourth degree, if there is no penetration.” [Department of Justice] [Justia (US Law)] [Michigan law]

“Another cluster of characteristics that seems to be fairly common among sex offenders involves problems in the social or interpersonal realm, with issues such as ineffective communication skills, social isolation, general social skills deficits, or problems in intimate relationships; and some experts believe that these characteristics have some role in the development of sexually abusive behavior.10 And a few of these issues, such as problems establishing and maintaining intimate relationships, are also associated with an increased risk for sexual recidivism.11

“Victim empathy deficits are common with sex offenders, and that it may be related in part to how individuals are able to engage in sexually abusive behavior, you may be surprised to learn that this specific factor has not been found to predict recidivism among sex offenders.13

“Some offenders have difficulties managing their emotions appropriately, and some are highly impulsive and tend not to think carefully about the consequences of their behaviors before they act—or they may have difficulty resisting their urges from time to time.

“The research and literature does indicate that some of these factors i.e. specifically emotional and behavioral self–regulation difficulties, may be part of what leads someone down the path to sex offending, and they are also associated with reoffending.15

Research suggests that the offense for which an individual is apprehended may not actually be the first or only abusive behavior in which he has engaged.16

Dr. William Marshall, a leading expert in the field of sex offender management concluded that there are some who believe that all sex offenders are victims and, as such, they may even suggest that offenders may be less personally accountable for their own offending behaviors.17 As Dr. Marshall points out, however, the literature does not support the notion that all sex offenders have been sexually abused. Some have been, and some have not.
[Section 3: Common Characteristics of Sex Offenders, Center for Sex Offender Management]

From another source: There is no one homogenous group of rapist and sexual abuser populations. (Sarkar 2011).[29,30] Problematic Child and Youth Athlete Coach rapist and sexual abusers will continue raping and sexually abusing Child/Youth Athletes for many of the following pathologic reasons.

Coach offenders should be separated from the Athletes, charged with their crimes and required to have medical treatment, if they have been diagnosed with one of the following etiologies which are primary causes for rape and sexual abuse:

• sexual sadism
• psychopathic sexual predator disorder
• themselves victims of sexual abuse, “the abused abuse”; Several studies show that rapists experienced multiple early life adversities such as sexual abuse, physical abuse, and dysfunctional family relations,[16] which are likely to affect their capacities for secure attachments and developing healthy adult relationships.[17] Such experiences create deficits of intimacy[18] with insensitive and aloof interpersonal styles[19] and dismissive attachment characterized by hostility to, suspicion of, and unempathic and callous attitudes toward attachment figures.[20]
• manifest an ICD-10 mental illness
• organic brain damage and learning disability,[2]
• congenital or acquired brain damage [3]
• violent and sexual drive originating from brain structure damage
• abnormal hormonal function
• head injuries [4]
• sadistic rapists with temporal horn brain abnormalities,[5,6] Bradford.[7]
• schizophrenia related psychoses related directly to the psychosis[9] or indirectly to disinhibition[10][11]
• hypomania and mania sexual disinhibition, pre-existing paraphilias, (2) whose deviant sexuality arises in the context of illness and/or its treatment, (3) whose deviant sexuality is one manifestation of a more generalized antisocial behaviour (4)
• other factors and rates i.e.dementia, head injury, substance misuse[11][4] alcohol abuse/dependence (9.3%), drug abuse (3.9%), personality disorder (2.6%), and psychosis (1.7%)
• Several studies show that rapists experienced multiple early life adversities such as sexual abuse, physical abuse, and dysfunctional family relations,[16] which are likely to affect their capacities for secure attachments and developing healthy adult relationships.[17]
• Cognitive distortions are errors in cognitions that allow the offender to rationalize and minimize the perceptions and judgements used by the sex offender to justify his molestation behavior.[21] 22]
• don’t believe they will ever get caught
[Mental health assessment of rape offenders, Indian J Psychiatry v.55(3); Jul-Sep 2013 by Jaydip Sarkar]

Sexual crimes range from ‘he said, she said’ to DNA proven cases, beyond the shadow of a doubt. Accusations are both truthful and false. However, potential offenders must be presumed innocent until proven guilty.

In the interest of fair and balanced, the entire spectrum of offender and rapist must be considered by the Scales of Lady Justice; Iustitia, Justitia or Lady Justice is the Roman goddess of Justice. [The Law Rules, Lady Justice – Center for Teaching the Rule of Law]

During the 2016 Presidential Campaign, Donald Trump and Billy Bush, of Access Hollywood, had a private conversation on a bus. The conversation was taped, unknown by Trump, went viral and then published on Youtube Oct 7, 2016. IN that conversation Donald Trump said, ““When you are a star they’ll let you do anything.” He also described kissing and groping women and a specific woman. After the tape went viral, he described it as ‘locker room talk’. Although there have been 3 accusations, no court proceedings have transpired and no one has proved inappropriate sexual behavior prior to the tape’s publication.

The video was used against him and he was called inaccurate disparaging names. There is no proof that he actually groped the genitals of any one. He has never been charged with a criminal sexual act, sexual assault or battery and not convicted and listed as a sexual predator. From the video recording, the conversation implies that his braggadocio was in the context consensual groping, between a famous, wealthy person and an admirer. Possibly, these and other accusations, that were asserted after the tape, will be settled in court.

“Sexual predator” means a sex offender who has been convicted of a sexually violent offense defined in subdivision three of this section and who suffers from a mental abnormality or personality disorder that makes him or her likely to engage in predatory sexually violent offenses. (b) “Sexually violent offender” means a sex offender who has been convicted of a sexually violent offense defined in subdivision three of this section. (c) “Predicate sex offender” means a sex offender who has been convicted of an offense set forth in subdivision two or three of this section when the offender has been previously convicted of an offense set forth in subdivision two or three of this section.

“Mental abnormality” means a congenital or acquired condition of a person that affects the emotional or volitional capacity of the person in a manner that predisposes that person to the commission of criminal sexual acts to a degree that makes the person a menace to the health and safety of other persons.

“Predatory” means an act directed at a stranger, or a person with whom a relationship has been established or promoted for the primary purpose of victimization. [New York Division of Criminal Justice Services] An predatory animal stalks its prey.

“In a study by the U.S. Air Force, about 25% of rape accusers recanted just before taking a lie detector test or after failing one. Further research found 60% of the accusations were false. The most common reasons given were spite or revenge, feelings of guilt or shame, or to cover up an affair. [McDowell, Charles P., Ph.D. “False Allegations.” Forensic Science Digest, (publication of the U.S. Air Force Office of Special Investigations), Vol. 11, No. 4 (December 1985), p. 64. (see Center for Military Readiness article “Sex, Lies, and Rape” for an excellent discussion of false accusations)].”

“According to University of Ottawa Criminal Lawyer Blane Crew, “… for a four-year period from 2003-2007, 31% of sexual assault claims that Ottawa Police investigated were dismissed as unfounded; that is, they never happened, as opposed to unsubstantiated, where there isn’t enough evidence to follow the case.”

“Moreover, a 1996 Department of Justice report shows that, in about 25% of the sexual assault cases referred to the FBI, the primary suspect has been excluded by forensic DNA testing. It should be noted that rape involves a forcible and non-consensual act, and a DNA match alone does not prove that rape occurred. So the 25% figure substantially underestimates the true extent of false allegations. [Connors E, Lundregan T, Miller N, McEwen T. Convicted by juries, exonerated by science: Case studies in the use of DNA evidence to prove innocence after trial, June 1996].”

Unlawful sexual misconduct is a complicated subject. The scales of justice are often challenged.

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