ZENITH: CHILD AND YOUTH RIGHTS IN SPORTS

ZENITH I and II:

ZENITH I: The 1989 UNITED NATIONS CONVENTION ON THE RIGHTS OF THE CHILD; SPORTS FOR DEVELOPMENT AND PEACE

“The Olympic Games reached their Zenith in the 6th and 5th centuries BC. The Olympic Games program now consists of 26 sports, 30 disciplines and nearly 300 events.”[Wikipedia]

“The ancient Olympics were based on a philosophy of balance between physical / athletic and spiritual / moral development that was a cornerstone of Greek democracy.”

“The Olympic games became a link, a bond between people of a common blood. The Games were seen as a way of fostering friendship among the warring Greek city-states with the aim of forming a nation.”

“The ‘Athletic Ideal’ was the motivation behind the original Olympic Games in ancient Greece. The “Athletic Ideal” is the primary legacy of the Olympic games. It is an ideology and legacy unique in the history of the world.”

“The goal of the ‘Athletic Ideal’ was ‘a healthy mind in a healthy body’. The ancient Greeks believed that the development of the mind, spirit, and body were linked, and that a well-educated person was instructed in all areas. An athletic victory was considered a credit to both the athlete’s physical and moral virtues. Physical training was valued for its role in the development of such qualities as endurance and patience.”

“The motivation was the development of a disciplined, devout, virtuous citizen of the democracy. The philosophy was that the success of self-government (democracy) depended on the moral character of the citizenry. This was a large part of the motivation for the combined athletic / moral training.”

“This goal demanded a holistic training of mind, body, and spirit. In ancient Greece athletics were an everyday part of all areas of life religion, education, society, the arts, and politics. Physical disciplines wove themselves into the very fabric of society, leaving no area untouched. This phenomenon is completely unique in world history. Ancient Greece was the birthplace of this ideology, the Athletic Ideal.” [OLYMPIC-LEGACY.com]

All Ancient Olympic Athletes were required to take an oath that they would observe all the rules and standards for Olympic Participation. In spite of the luxurious facilities offered to athletes, all had to remain amateurs. [Origin and History of the Olympic Games From Grolier Online’s New Book of Knowledge]

Ancient Olympic Athletes were treated well. They had entourages, trainers, coaches, and masseuses. Top athletes in antiquity were equivalent to modern day NBA stars. [The Ancient Olympics, by Howard Nowes, 11/19/2004]

Ancient Olympic Athletes certainly were not victims of Athlete Abuse. They were protected and revered not maltreated. Ancient Olympic Athletes were not vulnerable. Today’s NBA Stars are well treated and not abused by Coaches and other members of the Athletic Community, because they are not vulnerable. Similar to Ancient Olympic Athletes prestige, they have the wealth and power to reject maltreatment.
Different from Ancient Olympic Athletes and Today’s NBA Stars, Child Athletes are vulnerable to Endangerment, Mistreatment and Abuse because:

• reliance and dependency on adults
• age
• Innocence
• smaller physical size
• Immaturity
• inability to defend themselves physically and psychologically
• afraid of angering the offender
• blame themselves forthe abuse
• feel guilty and ashamed
• susceptible to force, not powerful
• susceptible to the use of trickery by offenders
• have nocontrol over their own bodies
• unable to make others believe their report
• perpetrators are someone they love, trust and admire in the beginning, such as their Coach.

Every Child in the World has the Right to Play and the Right of Protection and Well-Being while playing Sports. Childhood must be a United States of America as well as Global priority in every venue, including Sports. Children’s Rights are the law; not merely luxuries.

The United Nations accepts as truth that Sport can enhance the economic, social, health and personal growth and development of all people, particularly Children. while generating widespread employment and economic activity. Sports create a world wide culture of peace and tolerance, common to all people and nations. while promoting understanding and mutual respect.

Children’s Rights are often thought of in terms of the social institutions that are created to relieve the endangerment, mistreatment, Abuse and Neglect of Children. Less attention has been paid to the institutions that develop and foster Child endangerment, mistreatment and Abuse. One example is Sport Participation when the Care-giving Coach doesn’t Properly Supervise the Athletes like other Resonable Coaches would supervise.

The Awareness of Children’s Rights in different nations around the world arise in part from “progress”. Less “progressive” nations are associated with Underprovided Rights. That contrast is not necessarily so. The development and perpetuation of Child Abuse, neglect, exploitation in modern complex, industrial societies have different mechanisms of development than non-Western, non-industrialized and third world societies. In addition, Awareness and Advocacy for Underprovided Children’s Rights have different mechanisms in those different societies. The mechanisms for the development and perpetuation of Underprovided Children’s Rights are the difference.

Both progressive and non-progressive societies have communities of poverty. Poverty is not the key to Child Abuse. Poverty does not drive Child Athlete Abuse. No social class of people are immune from Child Abuse. From the wealthiest professionals to the most impoverished, no social class dominates or is unaffected from childhood victimization. All social strata are touched by Child Abuse and Neglect, Sports included.

While institutions are different in “progressive” nations, the principles remain the same, where the maltreatment of Children is concerned. It is unlawful. State, national and international laws are similar concerning violations of Children’s Rights.

The will to enforce childhood victimization laws might vary, however. [Children’s Rights a Cross Cultural Perspective by Vandra L. Masemann University of Toronto]
As a result, the core values and unlawful behaviors are the same for most cultures and societies but the varieties of Ammodytidae and pragmatic factors are different. [RESPONSES TO CHILD ABUSE IN WORLD PERSPECTIVE,Charles L. McGehee, Central Washington University, Paper presented at the Third International Institute on Victimology, Lisbon, Nov 11-17, l98]

There are similarities and differences in abuse and violence mechanisms in general around the world. “To advance our understanding of child abuse we must pursue cross-cultural research. Awareness of child abuse, internationally, varies a great deal, often depending on the political, social, economic, and cultural milieu of the country.”

“Explanations for the variation of child abuse from one country to the next emphasize cultural differences in attitudes towards, and values placed on children, and the cultural appropriateness of using violence as a means of social control.”

[International perspectives on child abuse By Richard J. Gelles Ph.D. and Claire Pedrick Cornell M.A. Department of Sociology and Anthropology, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI 02881 Jamaica]

Sports have a unique standing. The endangerment, maltreatment, Abuse and Neglect of Children in Sports have a common thread worldwide. The language, characteristics and mechanisms of development of Child Athlete Abuse are very similar in all nations. Every race, class, religion, and culture participate in Sports. Amateur Sports Communities are the most comparable International societies for Child Victimization.

Thus, Children’s Rights and well-being in sports are a priority for the United Nations. The U.N. priority is appropriately so. When Properly Supervised, Sports are the ideal model for social, economic and cultural development, peace and tolerance of nations and protection of Athlete health and welfare. As for Ancient Olympic Athletes, this U.N. priority is modern-day “Athletic Ideal”.

Since the beginning of the Ancient Olympics, everytning has changed but nothing is different. Everything has changed from nation to nation, but naught is different in the International Sports Community. From that perspective, Athletes Internationally Lace-Up For the Good of All. The United Nations model for Sports Participation will diminish Child Athlete Abuse.

During the World Cup in South Africa, the sound of the 2010 World Cup horn, or vuvuzela horn, was a perfect example of tolerance, understanding and mutual respect. The annoying vuvuzela horn was the only sound heard at the 2010 World Cup. Tens of thousands of South African fans took them to games and blew the World Cup horn as loudly as they could for entire games. Even though annoyed, fans and Athletes from around the world understood their significance, tolerated and respected the South African tradition.

However, in some instances, International and U.S. Sports Participation have evolved with serious costs and consequences to Children. Shakeshaft estimates that 1%-2% school coaches are sexual abusers. The percentage of Non-school coaches is much higher. Applying that rate to the NAYS estimate of 3 million volunteer and school coaches in the United States would produce about 6,000 coaches nationwide with records of sexual abuse.

That 6,000 are only the coaches who have been convicted or are being tried. As many as 94 percent of children who are sexually molested never report the incident, according to Hofstra University education professor Charol Shakeshaft, who studied cases in New York State. No one knows how many exist, without records, who will never be caught [Violation Of Trust / When young athletes are sex-abuse victims, their coaches are often the culprits Date: 6/9/02 Author: Michael Dobie, Publication: Newsday. http://www.taasa.org/library/pdfs/TAASALibrary192.pdf]

In 2004, the John Jay report tabulated a total of 4,392 priests and deacons in the U.S. against whom allegations of sexual abuse have been made.

In a statement read out by Archbishop Silvano Maria Tomasi in September 2009, the Holy See stated “We know now that in the last 50 years somewhere between 1.5% and 5% of the Catholic clergy has been involved in sexual abuse cases”, adding that this figure was comparable with that of other groups and denominations. [Wikipedia]
What are the current serious costs and consequences to Children. Human Rights in Youth Sport, published December 2004, by Paulo David, identifies and describes these International and United States of America problems of Exploitation and Abuse of Children in Youth in Sport. They are:

• over-training
• physical, emotional and sexual abuse
• doping and medical ethics
• education
• child labor
• accountability of governments, sports federations, coaches and parents.

The final inner truth, the Athletic Ideal or Zenith of this website, CAPPAA, PREVENT ATHLETE ABUSE, is Child Athletes’ Human Rights in Sports. They are fundamental
to Sports and fundamental to all Nations of the World. The 1989 UNITED NATIONS CONVENTION ON THE RIGHTS OF THE CHILD (CRC, INCLUDES SPORTS) and the UNITED NATIONS OFFICE FOR SPORTS DEVELOPMENT AND PEACE, UNOSDP, The UN System in Action, lead the endeavor.

Why do we need an International Law for Sports Participation ? i.e. The 1989 UNITED NATIONS CONVENTION ON THE RIGHTS OF THE CHILD (that INCLUDES SPORTS). Because it spells-out, in no uncertain terms, Child Protection Laws during Children’s Sports Participation, unlike the United States Federal and State Child Protection Laws that don’t enumerate each venue of Unlawful Care-giving to Children by Supervisors.

The 1989 UNITED NATIONS CONVENTION ON THE RIGHTS OF THE CHILD (INCLUDES SPORTS) defines Child Protection in Sports with definitions of Coaches and others abnormal behaviors and actions that result in Child Athlete Abuse. [The Rule of Law Enters the Sports Arena, by Paulo David]

The 1989 UNITED NATIONS CONVENTION ON THE RIGHTS OF THE CHILD (INCLUDES SPORTS) is International Law. It is the solution to Child Athletes’ Human Rights in Sports. The 1989 UN Convention’s Treaty provides inclusive Protection of Children’s Right to Play Sports while entitling them to their Human Rights, Protection and Well-Being. Currently it is parked on President Obama’s agenda table. President Obama is considering the initiation of the ratification process.

When asked whether he would seek ratification of the CRC in the Presidential Youth Debate, Obama expressed support for that goal: “It’s important that the United States return to its position as a respected global leader and promoter of Human Rights. It’s embarrassing to find ourselves in the company of Somalia, a lawless land.

I will review this and other treaties and ensure that the United States resumes its global leadership in Human Rights.” [Child’s Rights Information Network, CRIN]
Somalia and the United States are the only 2 nations in the World who have not ratified the 1989 Convention Treaty. As of November 2009, 194 countries have ratified it, including every member of the United Nations except Somalia and the United States. Somalia’s cabinet ministers have announced plans to ratify the treaty. The U.S. will most likely follow suit.

Once the treaty is ratified, the struggle for Awareness of the Laws for Children’s Rights in Sports will be recognized. The Convention Treaty, already an International Law for 194 nations, will be Supreme Law (Supremacy Clause) in the U.S. Children Athletes in the United States will finally win. Child Protection and Child Welfare in Sports will include the sting of Supreme Law once promulgated. The U.S. Federal Government’s suit against Arizona’s Immigration Law was based on the Supremacy Clause.

The Prevention of the Exploitation and Abuse of Children in Sport will be Supreme Law in the United States and truly a Hurrah Moment; a Final Moment of Glory for the Rights of Children in Sports; the Zenith.

The Rat Maze of Justice for Child Athletes that exists in the United States will not be a complex journey after the 1989 Convention Treaty is ratified. Even though United States Federal Law CAPTA 1974 (Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act) and State Laws (in Kentucky the Unified Juvenile Code) are the Child Protection and Criminal Codes of Conduct, they are poorly Enforced where Child Athletes are concerned. The quagmire of the U.S. Public Health Services, Social /Child Welfare Systems, Criminal Justice Departments, Education-Awareness Groups, and High School Athletic Associations and Federations will be abridged once the CRC is ratified.

To begin with, the U.S. participated in writing the text of the 1989 CRC. “In the US, the treaty power is a coordinated effort between the Executive branch and the Senate. The President may form and negotiate a treaty, but the treaty must be advised and consented to by a two-thirds vote in the Senate. Only after the Senate approves the treaty can the President ratify it. Once a treaty is ratified, it becomes binding on all the states under the Supremacy Clause.”

When we peel away the layers, the protective coverings, of ours or other Athlete’s Sports Participation, we sometimes discover the final inner truth, the heart of the issues, about that which we seek. We discover the personal health and welfare during that Sports Participation and awaken to the nature of the Sports Participation reality.

Unfortunately, Sports Participation is not always a positive experience. Sometimes the Sport has a negative impact on the Athlete. Dealing with Sports Participation’s harmful issues and healing those damaging issues are symbolized by pealing away the outer contributing truths to get to the core and seed, the place where all is understood, the final stage of the journey, final inner truth of Sports Participation’s deleterious effect. [Ref. Peeling Away The Layers]

The 1989 CONVENTION ON THE RIGHTS OF THE CHILD:

“The Convention on the Rights of the Child is the first legally binding international instrument to incorporate the full range of human rights—civil, cultural, economic, political and social rights. In 1989, world leaders decided that children needed a special convention just for them because people under 18 years old often need special care and protection that adults do not. The leaders also wanted to make sure that the world recognized that children have human rights too.”

“The Convention sets out these rights in 54 articles and two Optional Protocols. It spells out the basic human rights that children everywhere have: the right to survival; to develop to the fullest; to protection from harmful influences, abuse and exploitation; and to participate fully in family, cultural and social life.”

“The four core principles of the Convention are non-discrimination; devotion to the best interests of the child; the right to life, survival and development; and respect for the views of the child. Every right spelled out in the Convention is inherent to the human dignity and harmonious development of every child. The Convention protects children’s rights by setting standards in health care; education; and legal, civil and social services.”

“By agreeing to undertake the obligations of the Convention (by ratifying or acceding to it), national governments have committed themselves to protecting and ensuring children’s rights and they have agreed to hold themselves accountable for this commitment before the international community. States parties to the Convention are obliged to develop and undertake all actions and policies in the light of the best interests of the child.”[Wikipedia]

“The ratification of international treaties is accomplished by filing instruments of ratification as provided for in the treaty. In most democracies, the legislature authorizes the government to ratify treaties through standard legislative procedures (i.e., passing a bill).”[Wikipedia]

“In the US, the treaty power is a coordinated effort between the Executive branch and the Senate. The President may form and negotiate a treaty, but the treaty must be advised and consented to by a two-thirds vote in the Senate. Only after the Senate approves the treaty can the President ratify it. Once a treaty is ratified, it becomes binding on all the states under the Supremacy Clause.” [UNICEF: convention on the Rights of Children]

“The Supremacy Clause is a clause in the United States Constitution, Article VI, Clause 2. This clause asserts and establishes the Constitution, the federal laws made in pursuance of the Constitution, and treaties made by the United States with foreign nations as “the Supreme Law of the Land” (using modern capitalization). The text of Article VI, Clause 2, establishes these as the highest form of law in the American legal system, both in the Federal courts and in all of the State courts, mandating that all state judges shall uphold them, even if there are state laws or state constitutions that conflict with the powers of the Federal government. (Note that the word “shall” is used here and in the language of the law, which makes it a necessity, a compulsion.)” [Wikipedia]

What does sport have to do with the UN?

“The fundamental principles of sport –respect for opponents and for rules, teamwork and fair play– are consistent with the principles of the United Nations Charter.
“Sport plays a role in communities large and small. From informal recreational matches and contests, to organized sports leagues and federations, people participate: they play, coach, train, and support their favourite athletes and teams. From indigenous sports to global sporting events, sport has “convening power”. Where opportunities for recreational sport and play are absent, individuals and entire communities are often acutely aware of what they are missing.

“Sport can contribute to economic and social development, improving health and personal growth in people of all ages –particularly those of young people. Sport-related activities can generate employment and economic activity at many levels.
“Sport can also help build a culture of peace and tolerance by bringing people together on common ground, crossing national and other boundaries to promote understanding and mutual respect.”

“For many years the United Nations, its funds, programmes and related specialized agencies have acknowledged the importance of sport in society. United Nations bodies have enlisted star athletes and major sporting events in campaigns to promote immunization against childhood diseases and other public health measures, to support the fight against racism and apartheid, and for human rights. The right to play and to participate in sports have been embodied in United Nations instruments like the Convention on the Rights of the Child and The Convention on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women.

“During the past decade relations between the United Nations and civil society have grown in every respect. Relations with the sports world have reflected this trend. Since 1993 the General Assembly has adopted a succession of resolutions endorsing the Olympic Truce and development of the relationship with the International Olympic Committee (IOC).

“The IOC and National Olympic Committees (NOCs) have concluded cooperation agreements with a number of United Nations programmes and funds, including UNICEF, the Office of the High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), the UN Development Programme (UNDP) and the UN Environment Programme (UNEP) to bring the benefits of sport to refugees and others affected by conflict, and to fight social exclusion and environmental degradation.

“Other sports organizations have also lent their support to UN efforts in the field. The International Volleyball Federation has supported programmes for refugees, while the International Federation of Football Association (FIFA) has established working relationships with WHO and UNICEF for campaigns against polio and for the Rights of the Child, respectively. The USA National Basketball Association has supported UN anti-drug abuse campaigns. An increasing number of non-governmental organizations at the local, national and international levels are joining forces with United Nations offices and field operations to organize promote development, health, human rights and peace through sporting events. Acknowledging the growing potential of these partnerships, in 2001 the Secretary-General appointed for the first time a Special Adviser on Sport for Development and Peace, Adolf Ogi of Switzerland.

“The UN is bringing the power of sport to help in the global fight against HIV/AIDS and to preserve the environment. Independent specialized agencies of the broader United Nations system like the International Labour Organization (ILO), the UN Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) and the World Health Organization (WHO) have also focused on the value of sport in their fields of work.

“UNESCO adopted an International Charter of Physical Education and Sport in 1978 as a result of its work with the IOC. Since 1984 WHO has engaged with the sporting world to promote a healthy lifestyle, the benefits of regular physical activity and fight tobacco use. The ILO, as part of its activities to ensure decent working conditions has worked with other UN bodies [governments and sports organizations] through a series of partnerships in which sport is a central element for promoting social and economic development. There are many more examples of the growing collaboration between sports organizations and other NGOs, UN system bodies and governments using sport to improve the lives of people and communities.

“In March 2003 a task force of experts from the United Nations and several specialized agencies submitted to Secretary-General Kofi Annan a report containing recommendations for an increased role of sport to realize United Nations efforts for development and peace.

VI. Child Protection in Sport (Agenda item 4.i)

The Group welcomed the presentation by UNICEF. The issue of Child Protection in Sport should be framed within the broader Child Rights Convention which creates obligations for its Member States. Children have a right to leisure, play and sport (art. 31), and also have the right to be protected against abuse and violence. Sport can be the cause and conduit of violence and exploitation. There should be more emphasis in sports policy on the need to protect the children and recognize their rights, and less focus on producing elite athletes. The best interests of the child should guide decisions. Examples of violence in sport include trafficking, abuse, sexual violence, child labor, and athletes forced to play when injured.

This is a very sensitive subject and challenging to study given that definitions vary from study to study, and country to country. The conceptual framework for this work strand should be to establish a protective environment. There needs to be an open debate in society, which is challenging given that child protection is so often a taboo topic. There should be a zero tolerance policy for violence against children.

The presentation went on to outline the features of a protective environment: Codes of Conduct and ethical guidelines need to be developed. Mega sports events such as the FIFA World Cup can be used to raise awareness. UNICEF will publish a report at the end of May 2010 on violence against children in sport.

The meeting agreed the importance to create protective environments. The Child Protection in Sport priority is clear and there is only one Policy Recommendation: ‘Develop policies with specific provisions and implementation plans to prevent the exploitation and abuse of children and youth in sport contexts’.

The question of the definition of ‘child’ in sport was raised and it clarified that a child is under the age of 18. The same applies in sport unless national legislation sets the age younger. [Sport for Development and Peace International Working Group 1st Plenary Session, Geneva, Switzerland, 5 May 2010 Minutes Secretary: Mr. Poul Hansen, Head of UN Office on Sport for Development and Peace, SDP IWG Secretariat. Presiding Officer: Ms. Debbie Lye, Head of International Development,
International Inspiration Programme Director, UK Sport.]

UNITED NATIONS / UNOSDP

“The United Nations Office on Sport for Development and Peace (UNOSDP), based in Geneva and supported by a Liaison Office in New York , assists the Special Adviser to the United Nations Secretary-General on Sport for Development and Peace in his worldwide activities as an advocate, facilitator and representative of sports’ social purposes.

“The Office provides the entry point to the United Nations system with regard to Sport for Development and Peace, and works at bringing the worlds of sport and development together.

“Practitioners, policy-makers, researchers, journalists, communications specialists, entrepreneurs, athletes, volunteers and other stakeholders throughout the world are urged – and assisted in doing so – to meet the challenges and work outlined in the three-year Action Plan contained in the 2006 report of the Secretary-General “Sport for development and peace: the way forward” (A/61/373). [The United Nations Office on Sport for Development and Peace (UNOSDP)]

“Child Protection in Sport

“While recognising that every youth and child has a right to sport and play, the human rights of participants must be respected and protected. The most common forms of abuse in sport are physical, sexual, psychological and neglect; abuse that can have devastating consequences for the health and development of children. The SDP IWG Report, “Harnessing the Power of Sport for Development and Peace:
“Recommendations to Governments”, made the following policy and programmatic recommendations which Member States, with SDP IWG support, are encouraged to implement:

“POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS:

• Develop policies with specific provisions and implementation plans to prevent the exploitation and abuse of children and youth in sport contexts.”

Unfortunately, Child Athletes in the United States will need the ratification of the 1989 UNITED NATIONS CONVENTION TREATY ON THE RIGHTS OF THE CHILD that INCLUDES SPORTS, an International Law, to intervene for their over-training, physical, emotional and sexual abuse, doping and medical ethics, education, child labour and accountability of Federal and State Governments, sports federations and associations, coaches and parents and the Entire Athletic Community, even though Federal and State Child Protection Laws are already included in the United States Criminal Code of Conduct.
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ATHLETE ABUSE EXAMPLES
“Child abuse and neglect are defined by Federal and State laws. The Federal Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act (CAPTA 1974) provides minimum standards that States must incorporate in their statutory definitions of child abuse and neglect. The CAPTA definition of “child abuse and neglect,” at a minimum, refers to:
“Any recent act or failure to act on the part of a parent or caretaker, which results in death, serious physical or emotional harm, sexual abuse, or exploitation, or an act or failure to act which presents an imminent risk of serious harm”1

Types of Abuse

Physical Abuse

“Physical abuse is generally defined as “any nonaccidental physical injury to the child” and can include striking, kicking, burning, or biting the child, or any action that results in a physical impairment of the child.” Also includes acts or circumstances that threaten the child with harm or create a substantial risk of harm to the child’s health or welfare.

Neglect

“Neglect is frequently defined as the failure of a parent or other person with responsibility for the child to provide needed food, clothing, shelter, medical care, or SUPERVISION such that the child’s health, safety, and well-being are threatened with harm.”

Sexual Abuse/Exploitation

All States include sexual abuse in their definitions of child abuse. Sexual exploitation is an element of the definition of sexual abuse in most jurisdictions. Sexual exploitation includes allowing the child to engage in prostitution or in the production of child pornography.

Emotional Abuse

“Typical language used in these definitions is “injury to the psychological capacity or emotional stability of the child as evidenced by an observable or substantial change in behavior, emotional response, or cognition,” or as evidenced by “anxiety, depression, withdrawal, or aggressive behavior.” [Definitions of Child Abuse and Neglect: Summary of State Laws, Child Welfare Information Gateway, 2009]

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Human Rights in Youth Sport by Paulo David ISBN:9780415305587
Author:David, Paulo Publisher:Routledge

Publisher Comments: “The human rights of the child have been inscribed in the UN’s 1989 Convention on the Rights of the Child, and ratified by 191 countries. Paulo David’s work makes it clear, however, that too often competitive sports has yet to recognize the value of respect for international child rights norms. “Human Rights in Youth Sport” offers critical analysis of some very real problems within youth sport and argues that the future development of sport depends on the creation of a child-centered sport system. Areas of particular concern include issues of over training, physical, emotional, and sexual abuse, doping and medical ethics, education, and child labor. The text also examines the specific responsibilities and accountabilities of parents, coaches, and managers and should be essential reading for anybody with an interest in the ethics of sport, youth sport, coaching, and sports development.”
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“The Campaign for U.S. Ratification of the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC)
is a volunteer-driven network of academics, attorneys, child and human rights advocates, educators, members of religious and faith-based communities, physicians, representatives from non-governmental organizations, students, and other concerned citizens who seek to bring about U.S. ratification and implementation of the CRC.
Background

During the 2002 UN Special Session on Children, members of the U.S. delegation dismissed the CRC and its principles. Their criticism of the CRC underscored a lack of unified action over the years by U.S. proponents of the CRC to address incomplete or misleading information about the Convention.

Through the leadership of the Child Welfare League of America (CWLA), a core group of child advocates convened the first meeting of the Campaign for U.S. Ratification of the CRC in August 2002. Participants focused on efforts needed to build a national coalition.

In 2003, representatives from more than 50 U.S. non-governmental organizations met in Washington, DC for a two day strategy session entitled “Moving the CRC Forward in the United States”. Out of this effort, the Campaign for U.S. Ratification of the CRC was formalized. From its origins, the Campaign has grown to encompass membership from 200 organizations and academic institutions.

Children occupy a unique status in our society. While they are entitled to the basic rights prescribed in their nations’ Constitutions, their status, as minors, renders them vulnerable and in need of safeguards to ensure their protection.

In recognition of children’s special status, the United Nations commenced efforts in 1979 to develop an inclusive, legally-binding human rights treaty for all the world’s children. Ten years later, the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly in 1989 and instituted as international law in 1990.

Despite that the U.S. was an active and prominent participant in the decade-long drafting process, we, along with Somalia, remain the only two nations a party to the UN who have not ratified this celebrated document. The 194 countries that have ratified the Convention has used it as a guide to develop and implement policies and programs that best address and fulfill children’s needs.

Our children are our future decision-makers and leaders. They will set public policy and implement laws. In essence, they will shape the future of not only American society and culture, but that of the world. Thus, we need to raise resilient children who will make good citizens, who care about others, who share our values, and who will make excellent parents. In order for children to thrive, childhood needs to be made a national as well as global priority.

Children are seldom considered as a factor in decision-making. It is passed the time that we think about how our decisions affect the lives of each and every child. After all, we are going to have to live with the consequences of our actions.”

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Who enforces International Human Rights, and how?

The International Criminal Court was set up in 2002 to try individuals accused of genocide, war crimes and crimes against humanity.

On 7 October 2004, the General Assembly adopted Resolution number AG-2004-PRES-17 which recommended that, within the limits of national and international law, ICPO-Interpol member countries should cooperate with each other and with international organizations, international criminal tribunals, and non-governmental organizations as appropriate in a joint effort to prevent genocide, war crimes, and crimes against Humanity, and to investigate and prosecute those suspected of committing these crimes; asked the General Secretariat to assist member countries in the investigation and prosecution of these crimes; and asked the Secretary General to bring the present resolution to the attention of the appropriate United Nations authorities and other international organizations.

The General Assembly Delegates also authorized an accord to be signed with the Office of the Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court to improve co-operation between the two organizations in assisting the fight against transnational crime and upholding justice. The agreement will also allow the International Criminal Court access to Interpol’s communications network and databases.

The Investigation and Prosecution of Genocide, War Crimes, and Crimes against Humanity:

The General Secretariat is expanding its role in providing international co-ordination and support for law enforcement agencies in member countries and international organizations responsible for the investigation and prosecution of genocide, war crimes, and crimes against Humanity.

Interpol has been supporting member countries and the ad hoc International Criminal Tribunals in the location and apprehension of criminals wanted for genocide, war crimes, and crimes against Humanity since 1994, primarily through the publication of Red Notices and the provision of other investigative assistance. However, many countries have recently expanded their activities in this field, and have established specialized units dedicated to the investigation and prosecution of these offences regardless of where they have occurred.

About 6,000 school and volunteer coaches in the U.S. have records of sexual abuse. 1%-2% school coaches are sexual abusers. 4,392 (2004) priests and deacons in the U.S. against whom allegations of sexual abuse have been made. Between 1.5% and 5% of the Catholic clergy has been involved in sexual abuse cases

April 8, 2010 (C-FAM) – In London last Friday, a high ranking United Nations (UN) jurist called on the British government to detain Pope Benedict XVI during his upcoming visit to Britain, and send him to trial in the International Criminal Court (ICC) for for sexual abuse in the Catholic Church.

Who do we detain and turn over to the International Criminal Court for Crimes against Humanity (Child Athletes) because thousands of Coaches have committed Child Athlete Sexual Abuse?

The United Nations and the International Criminal Court have relationship governed by the “Relationship Agreement”.

NFHS Member Associations: The active members of the National Federation of State High School Associations are the 50 state high school athletic/activity associations, plus the District of Columbia. There also are affiliate athletic/activity members, including associations in the U.S. territories, Canada and other neighboring countries.
About US: Since 1920, The National Federation of State High School Associations has led the development of education -based interscholastic sports and activities that help students succeed in their lives. We set directions for the future by building awareness and support, improving the participation experience, establishing consistent standards and rules for competition, and helping those who oversee high school sports and activities.

The NFHS, from its offices in Indianapolis, Indiana, serves its 50 member state high school athletic/activity associations, plus the District of Columbia. The NFHS publishes playing rules in 16 sports for boys and girls competition and administers fine arts programs in speech, theater, debate and music. It provides a variety of program initiatives that reach the 18,500 high schools and over 11 million students involved in athletic and activity programs.

The Coaches Code of Ethics: http://www.nfhs.org/content.aspx?id=2825
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The International Criminal Court was set up in 2002 to try individuals accused of genocide, war crimes and crimes against humanity.

April 8, 2010 (C-FAM) – In London last Friday, a high ranking United Nations (UN) jurist called on the British government to detain Pope Benedict XVI during his upcoming visit to Britain, and send him to trial in the International Criminal Court (ICC) for “crimes against humanity.” (for sexual abuse in the Catholic Church) The Intenational Crimnal Court has the power to Enforce International Law i.e. 1989 UNITED NATIONS CONVENTION ON THE RIGHTS OF THE CHILD.

In 2004, the John Jay report tabulated a total of 4,392 priests and deacons in the U.S. against whom allegations of sexual abuse have been made.

In a statement read out by Archbishop Silvano Maria Tomasi in September 2009, the Holy See stated “We know now that in the last 50 years somewhere between 1.5% and 5% of the Catholic clergy has been involved in sexual abuse cases”, adding that this figure was comparable with that of other groups and denominations. [Wikipedia]

Charol Shakeshaft estimates that 1%-2% school coaches are sexual abusers. The percentage of Non-school coaches is much higher. Applying that rate to the NAYS estimate of 3 million volunteer and school coaches in the United States would produce about 6,000 coaches nationwide with records of sexual abuse.

That 6,000 are only the coaches who have been convicted or are being tried. As many as 94 percent of children who are sexually molested never report the incident, according to Hofstra University education professor Charol Shakeshaft, who studied cases in New York State. No one knows how many exist, without records, who will never be caught [Violation Of Trust / When young athletes are sex-abuse victims, their coaches are often the culprits Date: 6/9/02 Author: Michael Dobie, Publication: Newsday. http://www.taasa.org/library/pdfs/TAASALibrary192.pdf]

“Legislation exists to protect human rights, but it is much more difficult to ensure that states respect the treaties they have signed. Two covenants, on civil and political rights and on economic, social and cultural rights, were adopted in 1966. Other treaties, on children’s rights, women’s rights, racial discrimination and torture, have followed. Nearly every government has signed at least one of these international treaties. The International Criminal Court was set up in 2002 to try individuals accused of genocide, war crimes and crimes against humanity.” [Lara Iglitzen, Executive Director, Henry M. Jackson Foundation]

“To enforce the protections found in human rights covenants and treaties, people push governments to bring their actions into line with international standards by using in-country justice systems or human rights bodies, regional human rights commissions or courts, the United Nations human rights system, and by applying political pressure from within or outside the country.” [Mary Ann Stein, President, The Moriah Fund]

“Non-state actors act autonomously from recognized governments. They may include armed paramilitary groups, insurgents, guerrillas, liberation movements, NGO [Non-Governmental Organization (NGO) is a legally constituted organization created by natural or legal persons that operates independently from any government], corporations, educational institutions, private donors, religious organizations, the scientific community, private individuals, the media, etc. Their few shared characteristics result from their distinctly unofficial nature (compared with state actors), their greater flexibility and, often, their unaccountability under national and international laws. Non-state actors vary greatly in ideology, objectives, strategies, form and level of organization, support-base, legitimacy and degree of international recognition. There is growing recognition of the need to ensure that non-state actors also comply with international human rights laws.”[Joe Wilson, Program Officer, Public Welfare Foundation]

“A non-governmental organization (NGO) is an organization which is not a part of a government…….NGOs exist for a variety of different purposes, usually to further the political and/or social goals of their members. Some example goals include improving the state of the natural environment, encouraging the observance of human rights, improving the welfare of the disadvantaged, or representing a corporate agenda. However, there are a huge number of such organizations and their goals cover a broad range of political and philosophical positions. This can also easily be applied to private/semi-private schools and athletic organizations.” [WordIQ]

Specifiers’ Library NGO List:

NFHS – National Federation of State High School Associations, www.nfhs.org
(All States High School Athletic Associations are members)
NCAA – National Collegiate Athletic Association
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ZENITH II: UNOSDP

UNOSDP (The United Nations Office on Sport for Education, Health, Development and Peace)

“Sport is a language that everyone of us can speak.” Bon Ki-moon, United Nations Secretary-General

With the International Criminal Court, a new age of accountability, By Ban Ki-moon
Saturday, May 29, 2010

http://www.washingtonpost.com/wpdyn/content/article/2010/05/28/AR2010052803696.html

“Sport as a means to promote education, health, development and peace”
“Building a peaceful and better world through sport and the Olympic ideal”
UN Inter-Agency Task Force on Sport for Development and Peace defined Sport:
“all forms of physical activity that contribute to physical fitness, mental well-being and social interaction, such as play, recreation, organized or competitive sport, and indigenous sports and games.” This definition has been accepted by many proponents of UNOSDP and is the working definition of sport for the purposes of this report.

“Yearly since 2003, the UN General Assembly has adopted a resolution on the theme of ‘Sport as a means to promote Education, Health, Development and Peace’ (resolution 58/5) of 3 November 2003, 59/10 of 27 October 2004, 60/8 of 3 November 2005, 60/9 of 3 November 2005, 61/10 of 3 November 2006, and 62/271 of 23 July 2008). Resolution 58/5 proclaimed 2005 as the International Year of Sport and Physical Education.”

“Since the inception of the mandate of the Special Adviser to the UN Secretary-General on Sport for Development and Peace in 2001, Member States of the United Nations (including the United States of America) have increasingly expressed their support and commitment to sport for development and peace:”
1. Education
2. Health
3. Development
4. Peace

“The United Nations Office on Sport for Development and Peace (UNOSDP), based in Geneva and supported by a Liaison Office in New York , assists the Special Adviser to the United Nations Secretary-General on Sport for Development and Peace in his worldwide activities as an advocate, facilitator and representative of sports’ social purposes.

The Office provides the entry point to the United Nations system with regard to Sport for Development and Peace, and works at bringing the worlds of sport and development together.

Practitioners, policy-makers, researchers, journalists, communications specialists, entrepreneurs, athletes, volunteers and other stakeholders throughout the world are urged – and assisted in doing so – to meet the challenges and work outlined in the three-year Action Plan contained in the 2006 report of the Secretary-General “Sport for development and peace: the way forward” (A/61/373):

• (a) advancing a common global framework for Sport for Development and Peace;
• (b) promoting and supporting the systematic integration and mainstreaming of Sport for Development and Peace as an instrument in development plans and policies;
• (c) enhancing coordination to promote innovative funding mechanisms and multi-stakeholder arrangements on all levels, including the engagement of sport organizations, civil society, athletes and the private sector;
• (d) developing and promoting common evaluation and monitoring tools, indicators and benchmarks based on commonly agreed standards aiming towards mainstreaming sport for development and peace.

Recognizing the importance of sustaining momentum around the development potential of sport, UNOSDP performs the following duties:

ADVOCACY AND GUIDANCE

Through conferences, reports, official resolutions, media outreach, public relations and networking, UNOSDP assists the Special Adviser in raising awareness about the use of physical activity, sport and play as powerful tools in the advancement of development and peace objectives, including the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) with the aim of encouraging the mainstreaming and replication of initiatives that truly make a difference.

UNOSDP also provides guidance and assistance to those who currently engage or would like to engage in harnessing the potential of sport as a force for good.
FACILITATION AND COORDINATION

Emphasising dialogue, knowledge-sharing and partnerships, UNOSDP serves as a facilitator, encouraging cross-cutting and interdisciplinary exchanges between all stakeholders interested in using sport as a tool for education, health, development and peace.

In the lead-up to and during major global sports events, UNOSDP works on fostering UN-wide coordination and representation. In relation to the Olympic and Paralympic Games in Beijing in 2008 , UNOSDP was instrumental in collecting and disseminating information on the projects undertaken by the UN system at headquarters level as well as in China. For both events, the Special Adviser was designated to represent the UN Secretary-General and to head the UN delegation.”

UN MEMBER STATES

“The UN is made up of 192 Member States (including the United States of America) who play a crucial role moving forward, contributing to and supporting the Sport for Development and Peace movement globally. UN Member States are Members of inter-governmental bodies that address the issue of Sport for Development and Peace such as the Sport for Development and Peace International Working Group (SDP IWG) and UNESCO’s Intergovernmental Committee for Physical Education and Sport (CIGEPS).

To fully harness the potential of Sport for Development and Peace, UN Member States must ensure appropriate national government policies, investment and capacity are provided to support programmes, and where appropriate, to scale-up these programmes on a nationwide basis. As sport is a cross-cutting issue, a broad range of government actors are potentially involved including sport, youth, health, education, finance, persons with disabilities, gender, foreign affairs, economic development and labour Ministries and departments.

National governments can play a key role in convening international, national and sub-national stakeholders to encourage knowledge exchange, networking, collaboration, partnerships and coordinated participation in national Sport for Development and Peace policy and programme development and implementation.”

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Main Reference: Human Rights in Youth Sport A Critical Review of Children’s Rights in Competitive Sport, Author: Paulo David, ISBN: 978-0-415-30559-4 (paperback) 978 0-415-30558-7 (hardback) 978-0-203-51103-9 (electronic), No. of pages: 338 Series: Ethics and Sport, Subjects: Ethics and Philosophy of Sport; Sports Coaching; Youth Sport;, Publisher: Routledge, UK, PAULO DAVID, Officer-in-Charge of the Human Rights Treaty Division of the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights.
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